PAPER: SOCIOLOGY (100 MARKS)
I. General Sociology
- Individual: Sociability or the sociality of man., 1B, 1C
- Culture: Meaning and Characteristics (Culture is variable, learnt, social, shared, transmissive, dynamic and adaptive), types (Material, Non –material), functions (transfer of knowledge, define situation, provide behaviour pattern, moulds personality) and elements of culture (norms, values, beliefs, sanctions, customs).Culture and Socialization; formal and non-formal socialization, transmission of culture, cultural relativism. Sub-cultures. Ethnocentrism and
xenocentrism, Cultural lag, High culture and popular culture. Multiculturalism, assimilation, and acculturation, 2B.
- Society: Meaning and characteristics. Community; meaning and characteristics. Individual and society. Relationship between individual and society. Two main theories regarding the relationship of man and society (i) the social contact theory and (ii) the organismic theory. Social and cultural evolution of society (Hunting and Gathering Society, Herding and Advance Herding Society, Horticultural Society,
Agrarian Society, Industrial Society, Post modern Society).
- Social Interaction: Caste and classes, Forms of social classes, Feudal system in Pakistan, Social Mobility-nature of social mobility and its determinants in Pakistani society, Culture of poverty.
- Social Control: Mechanisms of social control-formal and informal means of social control, Anomie, Alienation and social Integration-Means of social integration in Pakistani Society.
- Social and Cultural Change and Social Policy: Processes of Social and Cultural Change-discovery, Inhibitions to social and cultural change in Pakistan, Social planning and directed social and cultural change, Effect of Industrialization, Urbanization, Modernization and Modern Means of Communication on Social Change.
- Public Opinion: Formation of public openion, concept of opinion leader, characteristics of opinion leadership.
- Community: The rural community, Traditional Characteristics of rural life, The urban community, Rural – Urban convergence, Urbanism, Future of cities in Pakistan.
- Social Institutions: The nature and genesis of institutions, The process of institutionalization, Functions of Social Institutions: Family, Religion, Education, Economy and Politics.
- Social Problems in Pakistan: High population growth rate, Rural –urban migration. Issues of technical/vocational training, Deviance and street crime, Unemployment, illiteracy and School drop out, Smuggling, Prostitution, Poverty, Drug Addiction, Child Labour and Abuse, Bonded Labour, Social customs and Traditions affecting Women in Pakistan, Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence, Issues concerning the Elderly in Pakistan.
- II. Sociological Theory:
- Three sociological perspectives: Structural Functionalism,12B Symbolic interactions and Conflict. Theorists: Ibn-i-Khaldun, Spencer, August Comte, Emile Dukheim, Max Weber, Karl Marx, Parson.
- III. Methods of Sociological Research:
- Scientific Method, Steps in research, Types of Questionnaire Research Design, Surveys, Observation and Case Studies.