# 2nd-year

### English Class-XII

##### Chapter 1: Grammar (222 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 1.1: Parts of Speech (Introduction) (Practice Test)

- Parts of Speech (introduction)
- Nouns (explanation with examples)
- Pronouns (explanation with examples)
- Adjectives (explanation with examples)
- Verbs (explanation with examples)
- Adverbs (explanation with examples)
- Conjunctions (explanation with examples)
- Prepositions (explanation with examples)
- Interjections (explanation with examples)

###### 1.2: Types of Nouns (Practice Test)

- Proper Nouns (explanation with examples)
- Common Nouns (explanation with examples)
- Concrete Nouns (explanation with examples)
- Abstract Nouns (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Abstract Nouns-1
- Exercise-Abstract Nouns-2
- Singular and Plural Nouns (explanation with examples)
- Countable and Uncountable Nouns (explanation with examples)
- Collective Nouns (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Collective Nouns
- Compound Nouns (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Nouns-Mixed
- Abstract Noun (explanation/identify/underline)
- Abstract Noun (change form/make sentences)
- Collective Nouns (explanation/identify/make sentences)

###### 1.3: Types of Pronouns (Practice Test)

- Personal Pronouns (explanation with examples)
- Possessive Pronouns (explanation with examples)
- Relative Pronouns & antecedent(explanation with examples)
- More on Relative Pronouns
- Exercise-Relative Pronouns
- Kinds of Pronouns Mixed Part-1
- Kinds of Pronouns Mixed Part-2
- Exercise-Kinds of Pronouns Mixed
- Exercise-Pronoun Antecedent
- Kinds of Pronouns (personal/possessive)(explanation)
- Kinds of Pronouns (reflexive/indefinite)(explanation)
- Kinds of Pronouns (identify various pronouns in sentences)
- Relative Pronouns (explanation/fill in blanks/make sentences)

###### 1.4: Types of Prepositions (Practice Test)

- Prepositions (explanation with examples & exercise)
- Compound Prepositions (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Compound Prepositions
- Prepositions (explanation with examples)
- Compound Prepositions (explanation/fill in blanks)

###### 1.5: Conjunctions (Practice Test)

###### 1.6: Articles (Practice Test)

- Definite and Indefinite Articles (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Articles
- Articles (explanation/identify/insert articles)

###### 1.7: Ellipses (Practice Test)

###### 1.8: Kinds of Adjectives (Practice Test)

- Kinds of Adjectives (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Kinds of Adjectives
- Order of Adjectives (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Order of Adjectives
- Degrees of Comparison (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Degrees of comparison
- Degrees of Comparison (explanation/complete the table/make sentences)
- Kinds of Adjectives (explanation)
- Kinds of Adjectives (change form/make sentences)
- Order of Adjectives (explanation/choose the correct phrase)
- Order of Adjectives (explanation/make sentences)
- Adjective Phrases(explanation/replace phrase by adjective/make senten
- Adverb Phrases(explanation/replace phrase by adjective/make sentences)
- Adjective Clauses (explanation/identify/fill blanks)
- More on Adjective Clauses

###### 1.9: Kinds and Positions of Adverbs in a Senetence (Practice Test)

- Modal Verbs (explanation with examples)
- More on Modal Verbs
- Exercise-Modal Verbs
- Kinds of Adverbs (explanation with examples)
- More on Kinds of Adverbs
- Position of Adverbs in a sentence (explanation with examples)
- Position of a Single Adverb in a Sentence
- Degrees of Adverbs (explanation with examples)
- Modal Verbs (explanation/use of modal verbs to describe various situa
- Adverbs (explanation with examples)
- Kinds of Adverbs/Position of Adverbs (explanation/place adverbs in co
- Adverbial Clauses Types (explanation with examples)
- More on Adverbial Clauses

###### 1.10: Types of Sentences (Practice Test)

- Sentence and Order of its Parts
- Statements (explanation with examples)
- Imperative Sentences (explanation with examples)
- Excalamatory Sentences (explanation with examples)
- Interrogative Sentences (explanation with examples)
- Optative Sentences (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Types of Sentences
- Simple Sentences (explanation with examples)
- Compound Sentences (explanation with examples)
- Complex Sentences (explanation with examples)
- Compound-Complex Sentences (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Sentences Mixed
- Types of Sentences-Exclamatory/Assertive etc (explanation)
- Simple, Complex and Compound Sentences(identify/write)

###### 1.11: Phrases and Clauses (Practice Test)

- Phrase (explanation with examples)
- Noun, Verb, Prepositional Phrases (explanation with examples)
- Adjective Phrase (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Adjective Phrase
- Adverb Phrase (explanation with examples)
- Exercie-Adverb Phrase
- Independent/Dependent Clauses (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Independent & Dependent Clause
- Exercise-Comma Clause
- Noun Clause (explanation with examples)
- Adjective Clause (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Adjective Clause-1
- Exercise-Adjective Clause-2
- Adverb Clause (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Adverb Clause-1
- Exercise-Adverb Clause-2
- Use of Comma with Clauses (explanation with examples)
- Independent/Dependent Clauses (explanation/identify/fill table)
- Use of Comma to Separate Clauses(explanation/correct sentences)

###### 1.12: Kinds of Verbs and their Forms (Practice Test)

- Transitive Verb (explantion with examples)
- Intransitive Verb (explantion with examples)
- Auxilliary Verb (explantion with examples)
- Linking Verbs (explantion with examples)
- Finite Verbs (explanation with examples)
- Non-Finite Verbs (explanation with examples)
- Present and Past participle (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Present & Past Participles
- Gerund (explanation with examples)
- Gerunds(explanation/complete phrases/make sentences)
- Infinitive (explanation with examples)
- Use of Infinitives(explanation/make sentences)
- More on Use of Infinitives
- Forms of Verbs for Regular Verbs (explanation with examples)
- Forms of Verbs for Irregular Verbs (explanation with examples)

###### 1.13: Tense, Aspect and Mood (Practice Test)

- Relation of Tense, Aspect and Mood with Verb (explanation )
- Verb Tense (types of tenses) (explanation with examples)
- Verb Aspect Versus Verb Tense (explanation with examples)
- Verbal Aspect-Simple/Indefinite (explanation with examples)
- Verbal Aspect-Continuous/Progressive (explanation with examples)
- Verbal Aspect-Perfect (explanation with examples)
- Verbal Aspect-Perfect Continuous (explanation with examples)
- Verbal Mood (3 types) (explanation with examples)

###### 1.14: Present Tense (Practice Test)

- Present Simple Tense(Uses&Formation)
- Present Simple Tense(Table) (explanation with examples)
- Present Continuous Tense (Uses&Formation)
- Present Continuous Tense (Table) (explanation with examples)
- Present Perfect Tense (Uses&Formation)
- Present Perfect Tense(Table) (explanation with examples)
- Present Perfect Continuous Tense (Uses&Formation)
- Present Perfect Continuous Tense (Table) (explanation & examples)

###### 1.15: Past Tense (Practice Test)

- Past Simple Tense(Uses&Formation)
- Past Simple Tense (Table)(explanation with examples)
- Past Continuous Tense(Uses&Formation)
- Past Continuous Tense (Table)(explanation with examples)
- Past perfect Tense (Uses&Formation)
- Past perfect Tense (Table)(explanation with examples)
- Past Perfect Continuous Tense (Uses&Formation)
- Past Perfect Continuous Tense (Table)(explanation & examples)

###### 1.16: Future Tense (Practice Test)

- Future Simple Tense (Uses&Formation)(explanation with examples)
- Future Simple Tense (Table) (explanation with examples)
- Future Continuous Tense(Uses&Formation) (explanation with examples)
- Future Continuous Tense (Table) (explanation with examples)
- Future Perfect Tense(Uses&Formation) (explanation with examples)
- Future Perfect Tense (Table)(explanation with examples)
- Future Perfect Continuous Tense (Uses&Formation)(explanation & exampl
- Future Perfect Continuous Tense (Table)(explanation with examples)
- Tenses/Aspect Table (all tenses in one table)
- More on Tenses/Aspect Table
- Exercise-Tenses-Mixed

###### 1.17: Conditionals Type- I, II and III (Practice Test)

- Conditionals-Type 1 (explanation with examples)
- Conditionals-Senetences Table (explanation with examples)
- More on Conditionals-Senetences Table(Type Zero, 1,2,3,Mixed)
- Exercise-Conditionals
- Conditionals-Type 1,2&3 (explanation with examples/fill blanks)

###### 1.18: Active and Passive Voice (Practice Test)

- Active and Passive Voice (explanation with examples)
- Active and Passive Voice Table Part 1 (explanation & examples)
- Active and Passive Voice Table Part 2 (explanation & examples)
- Active and Passive Voice Table Part 3 (explanation & examples)
- Active and Passive Voice Table Part 4 (explanation & examples)
- Exercise-Active & Passive Voice

###### 1.19: Subject-Verb Agreement (Practice Test)

- Subject-Verb Agreement Part 1 (explanation with examples)
- Subject-Verb Agreement Part 2 (explanation with examples)
- Subject-Verb Agreement Part 3 (explanation with examples)
- Subject-Verb Agreement Part 4 (explanation with examples)
- Subject-Verb Agreement Part 5 (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Subject Verb Agreement
- Subject-Verb Agreement (identyify/fill in blanks)
- More on Subject-Verb Agreement (1)
- More on Subject-Verb Agreement (2)

###### 1.20: Transitional Devices (Practice Test)

- Transitional Devices (explanation with examples)
- More on Transitional Devices
- Exercise Transitional Devices
- Transitional Devices (explanation/fill blanks)

###### 1.21: Direct/Indirect Narration (Practice Test)

- Direct/Indirect Narration (explanation/change form)
- Direct/Indirect Narration Tense-1 (explanation/change form)
- Direct/Indirect Narration Tense-2
- Direct/Indirect Narration Tense-3

###### 1.22: Punctuation (Practice Test)

- Ways to End a Sentence (full stop, comma, exclamation)
- Commas with Simple Series, Oxford comma and Adjectives (Rule 1 and 2)
- Commas with Clauses (Rule 3)
- Commas with Clauses and Introductory Phrases (Rule 4 to 5)
- Commas with Introductory Phrases and Nonessential Parts of a Sentence
- Appositive Commas (Rule 9)
- Commas with Phrases, Dates and Addresses (Rule 10 to 13)
- Commas with Degrees, Titles and Direct Speech (Rule 14 to 16)
- Commas with Direct Speech, Contrasting Parts and Introductory Items (
- Punctuating Salutations and Valedictions
- Punctuating Dates
- Punctuating Addresses
- Apostrophes with Singular Nouns (Rule 1 to 2)
- Identify Apostrophes with Plural Nouns (regular nouns) (Rule 3 to 4)
- Identify Apostrophes with Plural Nouns (irregular Nouns) (Rule 4- 5)
- Identify Plural Possession (Rule 6 to7)
- Apostrophes with Singular and Plural Compound Possessives (Rule 8 to
- Apostrophes with Possesive Adjectives (Rule 12)
- Apostrophes with Contractions(Rule 13)
- Apostrophes with Single or More capital Letters, Time and Money (Rule
- Apostrophes versus Single quotation Mark and False Possessives (Rule
- Colons with Series of Items (Rule 1-3)
- Colons with Vertical Lists and Series of Items (Rule 4-5)
- Colons with Direct Speech (Rule 6-8)
- Semicolons with Clauses (Rule 1 and 2)
- Semicolons with Conjunctions and Series of Items (Rule 3 to 6)
- Italics, Underlining and Quotes in Titles
- Use of Parenthesis
- Use of Parenthesis and Brackets
- Use of Dashes
- Use of Hyphens Part-1
- Use of Hyphens Part-2
- Use of Hyphens Part-3
- Punctuating a Passage Part-1
- Punctuating a Passage Part-2

##### Chapter 2: Writing Skills (73 videos)

###### 2.1: Summary Writing

- Summary Writing Intro and Steps (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Summary Skills-1
- Exercise-Summary Skills-2
- Exercise-Summary Skills-3
- Summary (explanation with practice using short poems)
- Summary Steps with Flow Chart (explanation)
- Summary of a Poem(Daffodils) (reading/outlining/checking/writing)
- Summary of a Short Passage (reading/outlining/checking/writing)
- Summary of a Long Passage (reading/outlining/checking/writing)
- More on Summary of a Long Passage

###### 2.2: Paraphrasing

- Paraphrasing Intro-Sample (writing a paraphrase of a story)
- More on paraphrasing Intro-Sample
- Paraphrasing the Stanzas of a Poem (editing/writing)
- Paraphrasing (explanation with examples)
- More on Paraphrasing

###### 2.3: Paragaraph Writing

- Paragaraph Writing Intro-Outline (explanation with examples)
- Paragraph Writing Sample(writing of a paragraph)
- Paragaraph Writing Skills (explanation/demonstration)
- More on Paragraph Writing (1)
- More on Paragraph Writing (2)

###### 2.4: Essay Writing

- Essay Writing -Intro with Essay Types (explanation with examples)
- Exercise-Essay Writing
- Steps for writing an Essay (explanation with examples)
- More on Steps for writing an Essay
- Essay Writing (Steps to Follow/types of essays)(explanation)
- More on Essay Writing Steps to Follow
- An Essay on Quaid-e-Azam our National Hero (mind map/outline/writing)
- Important Essay Topics( guessing the type of essay)
- Formal/Informal-Non-fictional/Fictional Essay (explanation)

###### 2.5: Mind Mapping

###### 2.6: Argumentative Essay

- Argumentative Essay Sample-Part-1 (writing of essay)
- Argumentative Essay Sample-Part-2 (writing of essay)
- Argumentative Essay Sample-Part-3(writing of essay)
- Persuasive/Argumentative Essay Comparison(explanation with table)
- A Sample Persuasive Essay (explanation)
- A Sample Argumentative Essay (explanation)

###### 2.7: Narrative Essay

- Narrative Essay Sample-Part-1 (writing of essay)
- Narrative Essay Sample-Part-2 (writing of essay)
- Narrative Essay Sample-Part-3 (writing of essay)
- Narrative Essay Sample-Part-4 (writing of essay)
- A Sample Personal Narrative Essay (explanation/mind map/outline)

###### 2.8: Character Sketch

###### 2.9: Descriptive Essay

- Descriptive Essay Sample (writing of essay)
- Character Sketch(explanation/steps to follow)
- More on Character Sketch
- Descriptive/Narrative Essay Comparison & Expository/Descriptive Mindm

###### 2.10: Cause and Effect Essay

- Cause and Effect Essay Sample (writing of essay)
- More on Cause and Effect Essay Sample (writing of essay)
- A Sample Cause and Effect Essay (mind map/outline/writing)
- More on A Cause and Effect Essay

###### 2.11: Comparison and Contrast Essay

- Comparison and Contrast Essay Sample(writing of essay)
- More on Comparison and Contrast Essay Sample (writing of essay)
- A Sample Comparison and Contrast Essay (outline/explanation)
- More on A Comparison and Contrast Essay

###### 2.12: Letter Format & Types

- Letter Types and Format(explanation with examples)
- Letter Writing Format (discussion with sample)
- Letter writing Steps (discussion)
- Formal/Informal Letter Comparison & Parts in Detail (discussion)

###### 2.13: Formal Letter (Application)

- Formal Letter Sample (reading and discussion of sample)
- A Sample Formal Letter/Application (outline/explanation)
- More on A Formal Letter

###### 2.14: Informal Letter

###### 2.15: Email

###### 2.16: Book Review

- Book Review Intro and Tips (explanation with examples)
- Book Review Sample (discussion of sample)
- Book Reviews on Hellen Keller’s 2 Books (explanation)
- Book Review (Importance and tips to write book reviews-Explanation)

###### 2.17: Dialogue Writing

- Dialogue Writing Part 1
- Dialogue Writing Part 2
- Dialogue Writing Part 3
- Dialogue Writing Part 4
- Dialogue Writing Part 5

##### Chapter 3: Vocabulary (56 videos)

###### 3.1: Vocabulary (based on syllabus)

- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 1
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 2
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 3
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 4
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 5
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 6
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 7
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 8
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 9
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 10
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 11
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 12
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 13
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 14
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 15
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 16
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 17
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 18
- Vocabulary Words (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 19
- Vocabulary Words (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 20
- Vocabulary Words (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 21

###### 3.2: Word Pairs

- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 1
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 2
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 3
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 4
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 5
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 6
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 7
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 8
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 9
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 10
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 11
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 12
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 13
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 14
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 15
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 16
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 17
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 18
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 19
- Word Pairs (5)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 20

###### 3.3: Proverbs and Stories

- Proverb and Story Part 1
- Proverb and Story Part 2
- Proverb and Story Part 3
- Proverb and Story Part 4
- Proverb and Story Part 5

###### 3.4: Idioms and Phrasal Verbs

- Idioms (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 1
- Idioms (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 2
- Idioms (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 3
- Idioms (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 4
- Idioms (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 5
- Phrasal Verbs (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 1
- Phrasal Verbs (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 2
- Phrasal Verbs (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 3
- Phrasal Verbs (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 4
- Phrasal Verbs (10)- [meanings & Sentences] Part 5

##### Chapter 4: Essay Outlines (15 videos)

###### 4.1: Essay Outlines (with explanation)

- Essay Outline (Women Education) Part 1
- Essay Outline (Women Education) Part 2
- Essay Outline (Women Education) Part 3
- Essay Outline (Social Media) Part 1
- Essay Outline (Social Media) Part 2
- Essay Outline (Social Media) Part 3
- Essay Outline (Corruption) Part 1
- Essay Outline (Corruption) Part 2
- Essay Outline (Corruption) Part 3
- Essay Outline (Pollution) Part 1
- Essay Outline (Pollution) Part 2
- Essay Outline (Education) Part 1
- Essay Outline (Education) Part 2
- Essay Outline (Education) Part 3
- Essay Outline (Education) Part 4

##### Chapter 5: Short Stories (18 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 5.1: Short Stories (Summaries and Q & A) (Practice Test)

- Button Button Summary
- Button Button Q & A
- Birkenhead Drill Summary
- Birkenhead Drill Q & A
- The Stuffed Trout Summary
- The Stuffed Trout Q & A
- The Man who was a Hospital
- The Man who was a Hospital Q & A
- The Dying Sun Summary
- The Dying Sun Q & A Part 1
- The Dying Sun Q & A Part 2
- The Devoted Friend Summary
- The Devoted Friend Q & A Part 1
- The Devoted Friend Q & A Part 2
- Hitch-Hicking Across the Sahara Summary
- Hitch-Hicking Across the Sahara Q & A Part 1
- Hitch-Hicking Across the Sahara Q & A Part 2
- M. A. Jinnah: A Great States Man Q & A

##### Chapter 6: Plays (27 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 6.1: Plays (Summaries, Analysis and Q & A) (Practice Test)

- The Oyster and the Pearl Summary and Analysis Part 1
- The Oyster and the Pearl Summary and Analysis Part 2
- The Oyster and the Pearl Q & A Part 1
- The Oyster and the Pearl Q & A Part 2
- Progress Summary Part 1
- Progress Summary Part 2
- Progress Q & A Part 1
- Progress Q & A Part 2
- Progress Q & A Part 3
- Dear Departed Summary
- Dear Departed Q & A Part 1
- Dear Departed Q & A Part 2
- True Friendship Summary Part 1
- True Friendship Summary Part 2
- True Friendship Q & A Part 1
- True Friendship Q & A Part 2
- King Lear Summary
- King Lear Character Analysis Part 1
- King Lear Character Analysis Part 2
- King Lear Q & A Part 1
- King Lear Q & A Part 2
- King Lear Q & A Part 3
- King Lear Q & A Part 4
- King Lear Q & A Part 5
- Twenty Minutes with Mrs. Oakentubb Summary
- Twenty Minutes with Mrs. Oakentubb Q & A Part 1
- Twenty Minutes with Mrs. Oakentubb Q & A Part 2

##### Chapter 7: Poems (26 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 7.1: Poems (Summaries, Analysis, Themes and Q & A) (Practice Test)

- Night Mail Summary Part 1
- Night Mail Summary Part 2
- Night Mail Q & A Part 1
- Night Mail Q & A Part 2
- Sonnet-Westminster Bridge Summary
- Sonnet-Westminster Bridge Q & A Part 1
- Sonnet-Westminster Bridge Q & A Part 2
- Sonnet-Westminster Bridge Q & A Part 3
- We are Seven Summary Part 1
- We are Seven Summary Part 2
- We are Seven Themes Part 1
- We are Seven Themes Part 2
- We are Seven Themes Part 3
- September, The First Day of School Summary Part 1
- September, The First Day of School Summary Part 2
- September, The First Day of School Summary Part 3
- September, The First Day of School Themes
- Endymion Summary and Analysis Part 1
- Endymion Summary and Analysis Part 2
- Endymion Summary and Analysis Part 3
- Endymion Questions and Answers
- One Way of Love Summary
- One Way of Love Analysis
- If Summary
- If Analysis Part 1
- If Analysis Part 2

##### Chapter 8: Novels (19 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 8.1: Novel (Summary, Themes, Characters and Q & A) (Practice Test)

- Goodbye Mr. Chips Summary Part 1
- Goodbye Mr. Chips Summary Part 2
- Goodbye Mr. Chips Summary Part 3
- Goodbye Mr. Chips Summary Part 4
- Character of Mr. Chips Part 1
- Character of Mr. Chips Part 2
- Character of Mr. Chips Part 3
- Character of Katherine Bridges Part 1
- Character of Katherine Bridges Part 2
- Character of Mr. Ralston
- Character of Mrs. Wicketts
- Goodbye Mr. Chips Short Q & A Part 1
- Goodbye Mr. Chips Short Q & A Part 2
- Goodbye Mr. Chips Theme: Humour
- Goodbye Mr. Chips Theme: Anti-War Part 1
- Goodbye Mr. Chips Theme: Anti-War Part 2
- Goodbye Mr. Chips Theme: Farewell Speech: Always Stay Positive Part 1
- Goodbye Mr. Chips Theme: Farewell Speech: Always Stay Positive Part 2
- Goodbye Mr. Chips Theme: Changing World

### Math Class-XII

##### Chapter 1: Function and Limits (37 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 1.1: Introduction ( Numbers Systems )

###### 1.2: Intervals (Practice Test)

###### 1.3: Modulus Function (Practice Test)

###### 1.4: Neighbourhood

###### 1.5: Binary Relation (Practice Test)

- Introduction to Binary Relation
- Problem-Introduction to Binary Relation
- Problem 1: Introduction to Binary Relation
- Domain & Range of Binary Relation
- Problem-Domain & Range of Binary Relation
- Problem 1: Domain & Range of Binary Relation

###### 1.6: Functions (Practice Test)

###### 1.7: Inverse Function

###### 1.8: Concept of Function in Terms of Variables (Practice Test)

###### 1.9: Algebra of Functions

###### 1.10: Polynomial Function

###### 1.11: Rational Function

###### 1.12: Composite Function

###### 1.13: Even and Odd Function

###### 1.14: Circular Trigonometric Function

###### 1.15: Inverse Trigonometric Function

###### 1.16: Formulization of Functions

###### 1.17: Graph of a Relation and of a Function

###### 1.18: Sequence

###### 1.19: Limit of Sequence

###### 1.20: Bounded Set and Monotonic Sequence

###### 1.21: Divergence

###### 1.22: Exponential Function (Practice Test)

###### 1.23: Logarithmic Function

###### 1.24: Infinite Series

###### 1.25: Meaning of the Phrase ‘x’ Tends to ‘a’

###### 1.26: Limit of Function

###### 1.27: Limits as x Tends Infinity (Practice Test)

- Limit at Infinity
- Method for Evaluating the Limits at Infinity
- Deducting Formulae at Limit Approaches to 0 and infinity

##### Chapter 2: The Straight Line (50 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 2.1: Cartesian Coordinate System

###### 2.2: Distance Between Two Given Points (Practice Test)

###### 2.3: Division of Given Line Segment in a Given Ratio (Practice Test)

- Points Dividing the Join of Two Points in Given Ratio
- More on Points Dividing Join of Two Points in Given Ratio
- Problem1a-Points Dividing the Join of Two Points in Given Ratio
- Problem1b-Points Dividing the Join of Two Points in Given Ratio

###### 2.4: Rules For the Choice of Axes

###### 2.5: Curves and Equations

###### 2.6: Slope (or Gradient) of a Line (Practice Test)

###### 2.7: Slope of the Line Joining Two Given Points

###### 2.8: Condition For Three Points to be Collinear

###### 2.9: Parallel and Perpendicular Lines (Practice Test)

- Slope of Parallel Lines
- Problem-Slope of Parallel Lines
- Problem2-Slope of Parallel Lines
- Relationship between Two and Three Straight Lines

###### 2.10: Angle From One Line to Another in the Slope Form

###### 2.11: Lines Parallel to the Axes of Coordinates (Practice Test)

###### 2.12: Various Forms of Equation of Straight Line (Practice Test)

- Equations of a Straight Line
- More on Equations of Straight Line
- Problem-Equations of a Straight Line
- Derivation of Slope Intercept form
- Problem1-Derivation of Slope Intercept form
- Deriving Point-slope Form of Equation of Straight Line
- Problem1-Deriving Point-slope Form of Equation of Straight Line
- Symmetric Form of Equation of Straight Line
- Problem1-Symmetric Form of Equation of Straight Line
- Two Point form of Equation of Straight Line
- Problem1-Two Point form of Equation of Straight Line
- Intercept Form of Equation of Straight Line
- Problem1-Intercept Form of Equation of Straight Line
- Normal Form of Equation of Straight Line
- Problem1-Normal Form of Equation of Straight Line

###### 2.13: Deduction of One Form of an Equation of a Line From Another (Practice Test)

- Transforming General Linear Equation to Standard Forms
- Problem1-Transforming General Linear Equation to Standard Forms
- Transforming General Equation to Slope Intercept Form
- Problem1-Transforming General Equation to Slope Intercept Form
- Transforming General Form of Equation to Intercept Form
- Problem1-Transforming General Form of Equation to Intercept Form
- Transforming General Form of Equation to Normal Form
- Problem1-Transforming General Form of Equation to Normal Form
- Transforming General Form of Equation to Point Slope Form
- Problem1-Transforming General Form of Equation to Point Slope Form
- Transforming General Form of Equation to Symmetric Form
- Problem1-Transforming General Form of Equation to Symmetric Form

##### Chapter 3: The General Equation of Straight Lines (35 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 3.1: The General Linear Equation

- How 2 Variabled Linear Equation Represent Straight Line
- Problem1-How 2 Variabled Linear Equation Represent Straight Line

###### 3.2: Angle Between Two Lines From l2 to l1 in The General Form

###### 3.3: Points of Intersection of Two Straight Lines

###### 3.4: Concurrency of Three Lines (Practice Test)

- Condition of Concurrency of Three Straight Lines
- More on Condition of Concurrency of Three Straight Lines
- Problem1-Condition of Concurrency of Three Straight Lines

###### 3.5: Equations of Lines in the Matrix Form

- Equation of a Straight Line in Matrix Form
- More on Equation of Straight Line in Matrix Form
- Problem1-Equation of a Straight Line in Matrix Form
- Problem2-Equation of a Straight Line in Matrix Form

###### 3.6: Lines Through the Intersection of Two Given Lines

- Equation of Lines Through Point of Intersecting 2 Lines
- Problem1-Equation of Lines Through Point of Intersecting 2 Lines

###### 3.7: Position of a Point with Respect to a Given Straight Line (Practice Test)

- Position of Point with Respect to Line
- More on Position of Point with Respect to Line
- Problem1-Position of Point with Respect to Line

###### 3.8: Distance of a Point From a Line (Practice Test)

- Distance of Point From Line
- Problem1-Distance of Point From Line
- Distance between Two Parallel Lines
- Problem1-Distance between Two Parallel Lines

###### 3.9: Area of a Triangle (Practice Test)

- Area of Triangular Region With Given Vertices
- More on Area of Triangular Region With Given Vertices
- Problem1-Area of Triangular Region With Given Vertices

###### 3.10: Equation of a Pair of Straight Lines Through the Origin

###### 3.11: The General Quadratic Equation (Practice Test)

- Homogeneous Equation of Second Degree in Two Variables
- More on Homogeneous Equation of 2nd Degree in 2 Variables
- Homogeneous Equation of Degree ‘n’
- More on Homogeneous Equation of Degree ‘n’
- Problem1-Homogeneous Equation of Degree ‘n’
- Problem2-Homogeneous Equation of Degree ‘n’
- Problem2-More on Homogeneous Equation of Degree ‘n’
- Problem3-Homogeneous Equation of Degree ‘n’
- Condition For the Lines to be Coincident
- More on Condition For the Lines to be Coincident

##### Chapter 4: Differentiability (49 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 4.1: Derivative of a Function at a Point (Practice Test)

- Derivative of a Function
- More on Derivative of a Function
- Notation for Derivative
- Derivative by First Principle
- More on Derivative by First Principle
- Problem1-Derivative by First Principle
- Problem2-Derivative by First Principle
- Derivative of a Constant Function
- Power Rule for Differentiation
- More on Power Rule for Differentiation
- Problem-Power Rule for Differentiation
- Problem1-Power Rule for Differentiation
- Derivative of a sum or Difference of Functions
- Problem1-Derivative of a sum or Difference of Functions
- Derivative of Product
- Problem1-Derivative of Product
- Derivative of a Quotient
- More on Derivative of a Quotient
- Problem1a-Derivative of Quotient
- Derivative of Trigonometric Functions
- More on Derivative of Trigonometric Functions
- More Stuff on Derivative of Trigonometric Functions
- Problem1-Derivative of Trigonometric Functions
- Problem2-Derivative of Trigonometric Functions
- Problem3-Derivative of Trigonometric Functions

###### 4.2: Composite Function (Practice Test)

- Differentiation by Chain Rule
- More on Differentiation by Chain Rule
- Problem1-Differentiation by Chain Rule
- Problem2-Differentiation by Chain Rule
- Derivative of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- More on Derivative of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Problem1-Derivative of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Problem2-Derivative of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Problem3-Derivative of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Derivative of Exponential Functions
- Problem1-Derivative of Exponential Functions
- Derivative of Logarithmic Functions
- Problem1-Derivative of Logarithmic Functions
- Problem Solving-Logarithmic Functions

###### 4.3: Implicit Function

###### 4.4: Parametric Function

###### 4.5: Higher Derivatives (Practice Test)

- Introducing Higher Order Differentiation
- Problem1-Introducing Higher Order Differentiation
- Problem2-Introducing Higher Order Differentiation
- Problem3-Introducing Higher Order Differentiation
- Problem4-Introducing Higher Order Differentiation

##### Chapter 5: Application of Differential Calculus (21 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 5.1: Geometrical Meaning of dy/dx

###### 5.2: dy/dx as a Rate Measurer

###### 5.3: Differential

###### 5.4: Increasing and Decreasing Function (Practice Test)

- Increasing and Decreasing Functions
- More on Increasing and Decreasing Functions
- Problem1-Increasing and Decreasing Functions
- Introducing Relative Extrema
- Problem1-Introducing Relative Extrema
- Relative Maxima and Minima
- Problem2-Relative Maxima and Minima
- Critical Values and Critical Points
- Point of Inflexion
- Second Derivative Test and Concavity
- More on Second Derivative Test and Concavity
- Problem Solving-Second Derivative Test and Concavity
- Differential-Maxima and Minima Problems
- Problem1a-Second Derivative and Its Applications
- Problem2a-Second Derivative and Its Applications
- Problem3a-Second Derivative and Its Applications

##### Chapter 6: Antiderivatives (93 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 6.1: Antiderivation or Integration (Practice Test)

- Antidifferentiation and Indefinite Integral
- Integral Language and Notation
- Difference between Delta y and dy
- Problem1-Difference between Delta y and dy
- Theorems on Anti-derivative
- Problem1-Theorems on Anti-derivative
- Problem2-Theorems on Anti-derivative
- Problem3-Theorems on Anti-derivative
- Problem4-Theorems on Anti-derivative
- To Integrate x Raise to Power n
- Problem1-To Integrate x Raise to Power n
- To Integrate Sine Functions
- To Integrate Cosine Functions
- To Integrate Secant Squared Fucntions
- To Integrate secx.tanx
- To Integrate Cosecant.Cotangent Functions
- Integrating Exponential Functions
- To Integrate 1 by x
- To Integrate Tangent Functions
- To Integrate Cotangent Functions
- To Integrate Cosecant Functions
- Integrating Power Functions with Given Derivatives
- More on Integrating Power Functions with Given Derivatives

###### 6.2: Integration by Substitution (Practice Test)

- Integration by Substitution
- Some Useful Substitutions in Integration
- More on Some Useful Substitions in Integration
- Some More Useful Substitions in Integration
- Problem-Integration by Useful Substitution
- Problem2-Some More Useful Substitions in Integration
- Prolem3-Some More Useful Substitions in Integration
- Prolem4-Some More Useful Substitions in Integration
- Prolem5-Some More Useful Substitions in Integration

###### 6.3: Integration by Completing the Squares

###### 6.4: Integration by Parts (Practice Test)

- Integration by Parts
- More on Integration by Parts
- Problem1-Integration by Parts
- Problem2-Integration by Parts
- Problem2b-Integration by Parts
- Integration by Parts of Trigonometric Functions
- More on Integration by Parts of Trigonometric Functions

###### 6.5: Partial Fractions (Practice Test)

- Integrating Partial Fractions with Non-repeated Factors
- Problem1-Integrating Partial Fractions with Non-repeated Factors
- Problem1a-Integrating Partial Fractions with Non-repeated Factors
- More on Integrating Partial Fractions with Non-repeated Factors
- Integrating Partial Fractions with Non-repeated Linear Factors
- Problem1-Integrating Partial Fractions with Non-repeated Linear Facto
- Problem1a-Integrating Partial Fractions with Non-repeated Linear Fact
- More on Integrating Partial Fractions with Non-repeated Factors
- Integrating Partial Fractions with Non-Repeated Quadratic Factors
- Problem1-Integrating Partial Fractions with Non-Repeated Quadratic Fa
- Problem1a-Integrating Partial Fractions with Non-Repeated Quadratic F
- More on Integrating Partial Fractions with Non-Repeated Quadratic Fac
- Further to Integrating Partial Fractions with Non-Repeated Quadratic

###### 6.6: Integation of Rational Fractions

###### 6.7: Area Under a Curve (Practice Test)

- The Definite Integral
- Problem1-The Definite Integral
- Problem2-The Definite Integral
- Problem2a-The Definite Integral
- Area Under the Curve
- Problem1-Area Under the Curve
- Problem2-Area Under the Curve
- More on Area Under the Curve
- Negative Area by Definite Integral
- Symmetrical Area by Integration
- Area Bounded by Two Curves by Integration
- To Deal with Negative and Positive Areas in Integation
- Area Bounded by Two Curves Above and Below x-axis
- Application of Definite Integral
- More on Application of Definite Integral
- Problem1-Application of Definite Integral
- Problem2-Application of Definite Integral
- Problem2a-Application of Definite Integral
- Problem3-Application of Definite Integral
- Problem3a-Application of Definite Integral

###### 6.8: Differential Equations (Practice Test)

- Introduction to Differential Equation
- More on Introduction to Differential Equation
- Classification of Differential Equation
- More on Classification of Differnetial Equation
- Solving First Order Differential Equation
- More on Solving First Order Differential Equation
- Problem1-Solving First Order Differential Equation
- Problem2-Solving First Order Differential Equation
- Solving First Order Differential Equation by Initial Conditions
- P1-Solving First Order Differential Equation by Initial Conditions
- P2-Solving First Order Differential Equation by Initial Conditions
- P3-Solving First Order Differential Equation by Initial Conditions
- Homogeneous Differential Equation
- Differential Equation Reducible to Homogeneous Differential Equation
- Differential Equation of Orthogonal Trajectories
- More on Differential Equation of Orthogonal Trajectories
- Application of Differential Equations
- More on Application of Differential Equations

##### Chapter 7: Circle (38 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 7.1: Introduction (Practice Test)

###### 7.2: Equation of a Circle (Practice Test)

- Standard Form of Equation of Circle
- General Form of Equation of Circle
- More on General Form of Equation of Circle

###### 7.3: Equation of a Circle with a Line Segment as its Diameter

###### 7.4: Tangents and Normals to a Circle (Practice Test)

- Equation of Tangent to Circle
- More on Equation of Tangent to Circle
- Problem1- Equation of Tangent to Circle
- Problem2a-Equation of Tangent to Circle
- Problem2b-Equation of Tangent to Circle
- Equation of Normal to Circle

###### 7.5: Equation of the Chord Joining Two Points on the Circle

###### 7.6: Points of Intersection of the Straight Line and the Circle

###### 7.7: Condition of Tangency of a Line to a Circle

###### 7.8: The Equation of Tangents and Normals Using Derivatives (Practice Test)

- Equation of Tangent to Circle
- More on Equation of Tangent to Circle
- Problem1- Equation of Tangent to Circle
- Problem2a-Equation of Tangent to Circle
- Problem2b-Equation of Tangent to Circle
- Equation of Normal to Circle

###### 7.9: Length of the Tangent from the Point to the Circle

###### 7.10: Condition of Normality

###### 7.11: Some Geometrical Properties of the Circle (Practice Test)

- Proof-2 Tangents can be Drawn to Circle from Point
- More on Proof-2 Tangents can be Drawn to Circle from Point
- Length of Tangent to Circle
- To Prove Circles Diameter is 2 Times its Radius
- Chords Perpendicular Passes Centre of Circle
- More on Chords Perpendicular Passes Centre of Circle
- Line From Centre and Midpoint of Chord is Perp to it
- More on Line From Centre and Midpoint of Chord is Perp to it
- Congruent Chords are Equidistance from Centre of Circle
- More on Congruent Chords are Equidistance from Centre of Circle
- Angle in Semi-Circle is Right Angle
- More on Angle in Semi-Circle is Right Angle
- Perpendicular Radial Segment is Tangent to Circle
- More on Perpendicular Radial Segment is Tangent to Circle

##### Chapter 8: Parabola,Ellipse and Hyperbola (109 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 8.1: General Conic (Practice Test)

###### 8.2: Parabola (Practice Test)

- Introduction to Parabola
- More on Introduction to Parabola
- Terms Related to Parabola
- General Form of Equation of Parabola
- Other Standard Parabola
- Graph of Parabola Facing Upward
- Graph of Parabola Facing Downward
- Graph of Parabola Facing Rightward
- Graph of Parabola Facing Leftward
- Problem Related with Parabola
- Parabola with Vertex not at Origin
- More on Parabola with Vertex not at Origin
- Problem-Parabola with Vertex not at Origin
- Graphing Parabola with Vertex not at Origin
- More on Graphing Parabola with Vertex not at Origin
- Finding Equation of Parabola with Focus and Vertex
- Finding Equation of Parabola with Directrix and Vertex
- Problem1-Finding Equation of Parabola with Focus and Vertex
- Problem2-Finding Equation of Parabola with Focus and Vertex
- Problem3-Finding Equation of Parabola with Focus and Vertex

###### 8.3: The Standard Equation of an Ellipse (Practice Test)

- Obtaining Standard Equation of Ellipse
- More on Obtaining Standard Equation of Ellipse-1
- More on Obtaining Standard Equation of Ellipse-2
- More on Obtaining Standard Equation of Ellipse-3
- Circle as Special Case of Ellipse
- Basic Terms Associated with Ellipse
- More on Basic Terms Associated with Ellipse
- Standard Form of Vertical and Horizontal Ellipses
- Problem1-Standard Form of Vertical and Horizontal Ellipses
- Translation of Horizontal Ellipse
- More on Translation of Horizontal Ellipse
- Translation of Vertical Ellipse
- More on Translation of Vertical Ellipse
- Equation of Ellipse with Foci and Vertices
- Problem1-Equation of Ellipse with Foci and Vertices
- Problem3-Equation of Ellipse with Foci and Vertices
- Ellipse Equation with Centre and Length of Axes
- Ellipse Equation with Centre and Given Point
- More on Ellipse Equation with Centre and Given Point

###### 8.4: Hyperbola (Practice Test)

- Defining Hyperbola
- Standard Form of Equation of Hyperbola
- More on Standard Form of Equation of Hyperbola
- More on Standard Form of Equation of Hyperbola
- Asymptotes of Hyperbola
- Foci of Hyperbola
- More on Foci of Hyperbola
- Problem1-Foci of Hyperbola
- Horizontal Hyperbola
- Vertical Hyperbola
- Rectangular Hyperbola
- Graphing Hyperbola
- More on Graphing Hyperbola
- Problem1-Graphing Hyperbola
- Problem2-Graphing Hyperbola
- Hyperbola with Focus and Eccentricity
- Graphing Hyperbola with Eccentricity and Latus Rectum
- Graphing Hyperbola with Focus and Directrix
- Translation of Hyperbola with Horizontally
- More on Translation of Hyperbola with Horizontally
- Translation of Hyperbola Vertically

###### 8.5: Equation of Chords

###### 8.6: Equations of Tangents and Normals to Conics (Practice Test)

- Intersection of Line and Parabola
- More on Intersection of Line and Parabola
- Equation of Tangent Line to Parabola in Slope Form
- Equation of Tangent Line to Parabola at Given Point
- Problem-Equation of Tangent Line to Parabola at Given Point
- Equation of Normal Line to Parabola at Given Point
- Problem1-Equation of Normal Line to Parabola at Given Point
- Application of Parabola-Suspension Related Problem
- Reflecting Property of Parabola
- Use of Parabola on Everyday Life-Problem
- Points of Intersection of Line and Ellipse
- More on Points of Intersection of Line and Ellipse
- Condition of Tangency of Line to Ellipse
- Equation of Tangent to Ellipse at Point
- More on Equation of Tangent to Ellipse at Point
- Equation of Normal to Ellipse at Point
- More on Equation of Normal to Ellipse at Point
- Problem1a-Equation of Normal to Ellipse at Point
- Problem1b-Equation of Normal to Ellipse at Point
- Graph of Ellipse
- More on Graph of Ellipse
- Point of Intersection of Line with Hyperbola
- Condition of Tangency of Line to Hyperbola
- Problem- Condition of Tangency of Line to Hyperbola
- Equation of Tangent Line to Hyperbola at Point
- More on Equation of Tangent Line to Hyperbola at Point
- Problem- Equation of Tangent Line to Hyperbola at Point
- Equation of Normal Line to Hyperbola at Point

###### 8.7: TwoTangents and Condition of Tangency to Conics (Practice Test)

- Equation of Tangent Line to Parabola in Slope Form
- Equation of Tangent Line to Parabola at Given Point
- Problem-Equation of Tangent Line to Parabola at Given Point
- Equation of Normal Line to Parabola at Given Point
- Problem1-Equation of Normal Line to Parabola at Given Point
- Condition of Tangency of Line to Ellipse
- Equation of Tangent to Ellipse at Point
- More on Equation of Tangent to Ellipse at Point
- Equation of Normal to Ellipse at Point
- More on Equation of Normal to Ellipse at Point
- Problem1a-Equation of Normal to Ellipse at Point
- Problem1b-Equation of Normal to Ellipse at Point
- Condition of Tangency of Line to Hyperbola
- Problem- Condition of Tangency of Line to Hyperbola
- Equation of Tangent Line to Hyperbola at Point
- More on Equation of Tangent Line to Hyperbola at Point
- Problem- Equation of Tangent Line to Hyperbola at Point
- Equation of Normal Line to Hyperbola at Point

##### Chapter 9: Vectors (100 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 9.1: Cartesian Coordinate System for 3D Space (Practice Test)

- Introducing Vector Geometry
- Problem-Introducing Vector Geometry
- Concept of Vector in Space
- More on Vectors in Space
- Problem-Concept of Vector in Space

###### 9.2: Scalar and Vectors Quantities (Practice Test)

- Scalar and Vector Quantities
- Problem-Scalar and Vector Quantities
- Terminologies and Notations of Vectors

###### 9.3: Equal Vectors

###### 9.4: Position Vector and its Direction Cosines (Practice Test)

- Position Vectors
- Problem-Position Vectors
- Direction Angles and Direction Cosines of Vector
- Problem-Direction Angles and Direction Cosines of Vector

###### 9.5: Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar

###### 9.6: Vector Addition (Practice Test)

- Addition of Vectors
- Problem-Addition of Vectors
- Vector Addition is Associative
- Problem-Vector Addition is Associative
- Zero Vectors
- Subtraction of Vectors
- Problem-Subtraction of Vectors

###### 9.7: Components of a Vector in a Plane (Practice Test)

- Components of a Vector
- Properties of Vectors in Plane
- More on Properties of Vectors in Plane
- A Unit Vector in the Direction of Another Vector
- Problem-A Unit Vector in the Direction of Another Vector
- Notation for Vectors in Coordinate System
- Problem-Notation for Vectors in Coordinate System

###### 9.8: Application to Analytic Geometry (Practice Test)

- Problem-Moment of Force
- Vectors Application to Geometry
- Problem1-Vectors Application to Geometry
- Problem2-Vectors Application to Geometry
- Moment of Force

###### 9.9: The Scalar and Vector Products of Two Vectors (Practice Test)

- Scalar Product of Two Vectors
- Problem-Scalar Product of Two Vectors
- Properties of Scalar Product
- More on Properties of Scalar Product
- Problem-Properties of Scalar Product
- Perpendicular Vectors
- Problem-Perpendicular Vectors
- Parallel Vectors
- Problem-Parallel Vectors
- Scalar Product of Vectors in Their Component Form
- Problem-Scalar Product of Vectors in Their Component Form
- Angle Between Two Vectors
- Problem-Angle Between Two Vectors
- Projection of One Vector Upon Another Vector
- Problem-Projection of One Vector Upon Another Vector
- Application of Scalar Product
- Problem-Application of Scalar Product
- Application of Scalar Product on Geometry
- More on Application of Scalar Product on Geometry
- Problem-Application of Scalar Product on Geometry
- Cross Product of Two Vectors
- Problem-Cross Product of Two Vectors
- Derivation of Useful Results of Cross Product
- Problem-Derivation of Useful Results of Cross Product
- Expression of Cross Product in Terms of Components
- Problem-Expression of Cross Product in Terms of Components
- Cross Product of Unit Vectors
- Properties of Cross Product
- Problem-Properties of Cross Product
- More on Properties of Cross Product
- Analytical Expression of Cross Product
- Direction Numbers or Direction Ratios
- Problem-Direction Numbers or Direction Ratios
- Collinear and Coplanar Vectors
- Problem-Collinear and Coplanar Vectors
- Vectors Application to Geometry
- Problem1-Vectors Application to Geometry
- Problem2-Vectors Application to Geometry
- Moment of Force
- Problem-Moment of Force
- Condition of Parallel Vectors in Cross Product
- Problem-Condition of Parallel Vectors in Cross Product
- Area of Parallelogram by Vectors
- Area of Triangle by Vectors
- Vector Equation of Line in 3D
- Problem-Vector Equation of Line in 3D
- Application of Vector Equation
- Problem1-Application of Vector Equation
- Problem2-Application of Vector Equation

###### 9.10: Scalar Products of Three Vectors (Practice Test)

- Scalar Triple Product
- Problem-Scalar Triple Product
- Vector Triple Product
- More on Vector Triple Product
- Analytical Expression of Triple Product
- Problem-Analytical Expression of Triple Product
- Volume of Parallelepiped by Triple Product
- Problem-Volume of Parallelepiped by Triple Product
- Volume of Tetrahedron by Triple Product
- Problem-Volume of Tetrahedron by Triple Product
- Properties of Triple Scalar Product
- Problem-Properties of Scalar Triple Product

###### 9.11: Applications of Vectors to Mechanics (Practice Test)

- Area of Parallelogram by Vectors
- Area of Triangle by Vectors
- Application of Vector Equation
- Problem1-Application of Vector Equation
- Problem2-Application of Vector Equation

### Physics Class-XII

##### Chapter 11: Heat (49 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 11.1: Heat as a Form of Energy in Transit

###### 11.2: Temperature

###### 11.3: Scales of Temperature (Practice Test)

###### 11.4: Themometric Properties

###### 11.5: Thermal Expansion (Practice Test)

- Thermal Expansion of solids
- Linear Thermal Expansion in Solids
- More on Linear Thermal Expansion in Solids
- Problem on Linear Thermal Expansion in Solids

###### 11.6: Volume Expansion

###### 11.7: Bimetallic Thermostat

###### 11.8: Gas Laws (Practice Test)

###### 11.9: General Gas Law

###### 11.10: The Properties of Gases:Kinetic Interpretation

###### 11.11: Interpretation of Pressure on Kinetic Theory of Gases (Practice Test)

- Interpretation of Pressure on Kinetic Theory of Gases
- 1-More on Interpretation of Pressure on Kinetic Theory of Gases
- 2-More on Interpretation of Pressure on Kinetic Theory of Gases
- Problem on Interpretation of Pressure

###### 11.12: Derivation of The Gas Laws (Practice Test)

###### 11.13: Specific Heat Capacity (Practice Test)

###### 11.14: Determination of The Specific Heat Capacity

###### 11.15: Molar Specific Heat (Practice Test)

- Molar Specific Heat of a Gas
- Constant Volume Molar Specific heat of a Gas (Cv)
- Constant Pressure Molar Specific heat of a Gas (Cp)

###### 11.16: Heat and Work in Thermodynamics

###### 11.17: The First Law of Thermodynamics (Practice Test)

###### 11.18: Special Cases

###### 11.19: Applications of First Law of Thermodynamics (Practice Test)

###### 11.20: Derivation of Cp?Cv=R

###### 11.21: The Second Law of Thermodynamics

###### 11.22: The Carnot Engine (Practice Test)

###### 11.23: Entropy and The Second Law of Thermodynamics

##### Chapter 12: Electrostatics (52 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 12.1: Electrostatics

###### 12.2: Coulomb’s Law

- Coulomb’s Law
- More on Coulomb’s Law
- Problem-Coulomb’s Law
- Problem 1-Coulombs Law
- Problem 2-Coulombs Law

###### 12.3: Electric Field

- Fields of Force
- More on Fields of Force
- Problem-Field of Force
- Intensity of Electric Field
- Problem1-Electric Field Intensity Near an Isolated Point Charge q
- Problem2-Electric Field Intensity Near an Isolated Point Charge q

###### 12.4: Electric Lines of Force

###### 12.5: Electric Flux and Field Intensity

###### 12.6: Gauss’s Law

###### 12.7: Applications of Gauss’s Law

- Intensity of Field Inside a Hollow Charged Sphere
- Electric Intensity Due to an Infinite Sheet of Charge
- Problem-Electric Intensity Due to an Infinite Sheet of Charge
- Electric Intensity Between Two Oppositely Charged Parallel Plates
- Problem-Electric Intensity Between Two Oppositely Charged Parallel Pl

###### 12.8: Electric Potential

###### 12.9: Absolute Potential at a Point

###### 12.10: Electric Potential Near an Isolated Point Charge

- Electric Potential at a Point due to a Point Charge
- More on Electric Potential at a Point due to a Point Charge
- More on Electric Potential at a Point due to a Point Charge
- Problem-Electric Potential at a Point due to a Point Charge

###### 12.11: Relation Between Electric Field and Potential

###### 12.12: Electron Volt

- Electron Volt
- Problem-Electron Volt
- Problem-Electric and Gravitational Forces (A Comparison)
- Problem-Charge on an Electron by Millikan’s Method

###### 12.13: Equipotential Surfaces

###### 12.14: Capacitance and Capacitors

###### 12.15: Parallel Plate Capacitor

- Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor
- Problem-Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor
- Electric Polarization of Dielectrics
- Problem1-Energy Stored in a Capacitor
- Problem2-Energy Stored in a Capacitor
- Problem-Charging and Discharging a Capacitor

###### 12.16: Combinations of Capacitors

- Parallel Combination
- Problem-Parallel Combination of Capacitors
- Series Combination
- Problem-Series Combination of Capacitors

###### 12.17: Different Types of Capacitors

##### Chapter 13: Current Electricity (20 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 13.1: Electric Current

###### 13.2: Direction of a Current

###### 13.3: Electric Resistance and Ohm’s Law (Practice Test)

###### 13.4: Resistivity (Practice Test)

- Resistivity and Conductivity
- Problem-Resistivity and Coductivity
- Resistivity and its Dependence Upon Temperature
- More on Resistivity and its Dependence Upon Temperature
- Problem-Resistivity and its Dependence Upon Temperature

###### 13.5: Combination of Resistors (Practice Test)

- Review of Series and Parallel Combination of Resistors
- More on Review of Series and Parallel Combination of Resistors
- Problem1-Review of Series and Parallel Combination of Resistors
- Problem2-Review of Series and Parallel Combination of Resistors

###### 13.6: Power Dissipation in Resistors (Practice Test)

- Electrical Power and Power Dissipation in Resistors
- Problem-Electrical Power and Power Dissipation in Resistors

###### 13.7: Electromotive Force (Practice Test)

- Electromotive Force (EMF) and Potential Difference
- More on Electromotive Force (EMF) and Potential Difference
- Problem-Maximum Power Output

##### Chapter 14: Magnetism and Electro-Magnetism (54 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 14.1: Magnetic Field Due to Current

- Magnetic Field Due to Current in a Long Straight Wire
- Problem-Magnetic Field Due to Current in a Long Straight Wire

###### 14.2: Force on a Current Carrying Conductor in a Uniform Magnetic Field (Practice Test)

- Force on a Current Carrying Conductor in a Uniform B Field
- More on Force on a Current Carrying Conductor in a Uniform B Field
- Problem1-Force on a Current Carrying Conductor Place in a Magnetic Fi
- Problem2-Force on a Current Carrying Conductor Place in a Magnetic Fi

###### 14.3: Torque on a Current Carrying Rectangular Loop Placed in a Magnetic Field (Practice Test)

- Torque on a Current Carrying Coil in a Magnetic Field
- More on Torque on a Current Carrying Coil in a Magnetic Field
- Problem-Torque on a Current Carrying Coil in a Magnetic Field

###### 14.4: Magnetic Flux and Flux Density

###### 14.5: Force on a Charged Particle Moving on a Magnetic Field (Practice Test)

- Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
- More on Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field
- Problem-Motion of Charged Particle in an Electric and Magnetic Field
- Determination of e/m of an Electron
- More on Determination of e/m of an Electron
- Problem-Determination of e/m of an Electron

###### 14.6: Ampere’s Law (Practice Test)

- Ampere’s Law and Determination of Flux Density B
- More on Ampere’s Law and Determination of Flux Density B
- Problem-Ampere’s Law and Determination of Flux Density B
- Field Due to a Current Carrying Solenoid
- More on Field Due to a Current Carrying Solenoid
- Problem-Field Due to a Current Carrying Solenoid
- Toroidal Field
- More on Toroidal Field
- Problem-Toroidal Field

###### 14.7: Electromagnetic Induction (Practice Test)

- Induced EMF and Induced Current
- More on Induced EMF and Induced Current
- Problem-Faraday’s Law and Induced EMF

###### 14.8: Lenz’s Law

###### 14.9: Self Induction (Practice Test)

- Self Induction
- Problem-Self Induction
- Mutual Induction
- More on Mutual Induction
- Problem-Mutual Induction
- Non-Inductive Wire Wound Resistance
- Problem1-Energy Stored in an Inductor
- Problem2-Energy Stored in an Inductor
- Motional EMF
- More on Motional EMF
- Problem-Motional EMF

###### 14.10: Alternating Current Generator ( Dynamo ) (Practice Test)

- Alternating Current Generator
- More on Alternating Current Generator
- More on Alternating Current Generator
- Problem-Alternating Current Generator

###### 14.11: D.C. Generator

###### 14.12: Electric Motor (Practice Test)

###### 14.13: Transformer (Practice Test)

- Transformer
- More on Transformer
- Problem-Transformer
- Sources of Power Loss in Transformer
- Power Transmission

##### Chapter 15: Electrical Measuring Instruments (21 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 15.1: The Moving Coil Galvanometer (Practice Test)

###### 15.2: Ammeter and Voltmeter (Practice Test)

- Ammeter
- More on Ammeter
- Problem-Ammeter
- Voltmeter
- More on Voltmeter
- Problem-Voltmeter
- Multi-Range Ammeter

###### 15.3: Wheatstone Bridge

###### 15.4: Meter Bridge (Practice Test)

###### 15.5: Post Office Box ( P.O. Box )

###### 15.6: The Ohmmeter

###### 15.7: Potentiometer

##### Chapter 16: Electromagnetic Waves and Electronics (39 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 16.1: Production of Electromagnetic Waves ( Radio Waves ) (Practice Test)

###### 16.2: Information Carried by Electromagnetic Waves and Their Reception (Practice Test)

###### 16.3: The Band Theory of Solids (Practice Test)

###### 16.4: Semi Conductors (Practice Test)

###### 16.5: Atomic Binding in Semi Conductors

###### 16.6: Preparation of Semi Conductors (Practice Test)

###### 16.7: Crystallography

###### 16.8: Crystal Lattice and Unit Cell

###### 16.9: The p-n Junction or Semi Conductor Diode (Practice Test)

- Brief Review of p-n Junction and its Characteristics
- More on Brief Review of p-n Junction and its Characteristics
- More on Brief Review of p-n Junction and its Characteristics
- More on Brief Review of p-n Junction and its Characteristics

###### 16.10: Biasing (Practice Test)

###### 16.11: Semi Conductor Diode ( Crystal Diode ) Rectifiers (Practice Test)

###### 16.12: Photodiodes

###### 16.13: Light Emitting Diode ( LED ) (Practice Test)

###### 16.14: Solar Cell

###### 16.15: Transistor (Practice Test)

###### 16.16: Transistor Operation (Practice Test)

- Current Flow in a n-p-n Transistor
- Problem- Current Flow in a n-p-n Transistor
- Working of p-n-p Transistor

###### 16.17: Transistor Characteristics

###### 16.18: Transistor as an Amplifier (Practice Test)

##### Chapter 17: Advent of Modern Physics (56 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 17.1: Frames of Reference

###### 17.2: Inertial Reference Frame

###### 17.3: Frames of Reference in Uniform Relative Motion

- Frames of Reference in Uniform Relative Motion
- More on Frames of Reference in Uniform Relative Motion
- More on Frames of Reference in Uniform Relative Motion

###### 17.4: Postulates of Special Theory of Relativity

###### 17.5: Consequences of Special Theory of Relativity (Practice Test)

- Time Dilation
- Problem-Time Dilation
- Length Contraction
- Problem-Length Contraction
- Mass Variation
- Problem-Mass Variation
- Mass energy relation
- Problem-Energy – Mass Relation

###### 17.6: Black Body Radiation and Quantum Theory (Practice Test)

- Black Body Radiation
- 1-More on Black-Body Radiation
- 2-More on Black-Body Radiation
- Problem1-Black Body Radiation
- Problem2-Black Body Radiation

###### 17.7: Planck’s Law – Quantum Theory

###### 17.8: The Photon (Practice Test)

###### 17.9: The Photo Electric Effect (Practice Test)

- Photoelectric Effect
- More on Photoelectric effect
- 2-More on Photoelectric Effect
- 3-More on Photoelectric Effect
- Problem-Photoelectric Effect

###### 17.10: Einstein’s Explanation of Photo Electric Effect on The Basis of Quantum Theory (Practice Test)

- Explanation on the Basis of Quantum Theory
- More on Explanation on the Basis of Quantum Theory
- Problem-Explanation on the Basis of Quantum Theory

###### 17.11: Photo Cell and their Uses (Practice Test)

###### 17.12: The Compton Effect (Practice Test)

###### 17.13: Pair Production and Annhilation of Matter (Practice Test)

###### 17.14: The Wave Nature of Particles and De – Broglie Hypothesis (Practice Test)

###### 17.15: The Davisson and Germer Experiment (Practice Test)

- Davisson and Germer Experiment
- More on Davisson and Germer Experiment
- Problem-Davisson and Germer Experiment

###### 17.16: Wave Particle Duality

###### 17.17: The Uncertainty Principle (Practice Test)

- Uncertainty Principle
- 1-More on Uncertainty Principle
- 2-More on Uncertainty Principle
- Problem1-Uncertainty Principle
- Problem2-Uncertainty Principle

##### Chapter 18: The Atomic Spectra (30 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 18.1: The Spectrum of Hydrogen Atom (Practice Test)

###### 18.2: Bohr’s Model of The Hydrogen Atom (Practice Test)

- Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom
- Problem-Bohr’s Model of the Hydrogen Atom
- De-Broglie’s Interpretation of Bohr’s Orbits
- Quantized Radii
- More on Quantized Radii
- Problem-Quantized Radii
- Quantized Energies
- More on Quantized Energies
- Problem-Quantized Energies
- Hydrogen Emission Spectrum

###### 18.3: Excitation and Ionization Potentail (Practice Test)

- Excitation and Ionization Potential
- more on Excitation and Ionization Potential
- Inner Shell Transitions and Characteristic X-Rays

###### 18.4: X-Ray Spectra (Practice Test)

###### 18.5: X – Ray Contnious Spectra or X – Ray Bremsstrahlung (Practice Test)

###### 18.6: Introduction to Lasers

###### 18.7: The Laser Principle (Practice Test)

- Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission
- Population Inversion and Laser Action
- More on Population Inversion and Laser Action

###### 18.8: Operation of Ruby Laser

###### 18.9: Applications of Laser

##### Chapter 19: The Atomic Nucleus (47 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 19.1: Introduction (Practice Test)

###### 19.2: Nuclear Structure

###### 19.3: Isotopes

###### 19.4: Radio Activity and Nuclear Changes (Practice Test)

###### 19.5: The Disintegration of Radio Active Elements

###### 19.6: The Law of Radio Active Decay (Practice Test)

- Laws of Radioactive decay
- More on Laws of Radioactive decay
- More on Laws of Radioactive decay
- Radioactive decay law-problem

###### 19.7: The Half Period or Half Life of The Radio Active Nuclide (Practice Test)

###### 19.8: Nuclear Changes and The Conservation Laws

- Nuclear Changes and The Conservation Laws
- More on Nuclear Changes and The Conservation Laws
- Nuclear changes and the conservation law
- Nuclear changes and the conservation law
- Nuclear changes and the conservation law

###### 19.9: Mass Energy Relation and The Mass Defect

###### 19.10: Mass Defect and Binding Energy (Practice Test)

- 1-More on Mass Defect and Binding Energy
- 2-More on Mass Defect and Binding Energy
- Mass defect and binding energy-problem
- Mass defect and binding energy-problem

###### 19.11: Nuclear Reactions (Practice Test)

###### 19.12: Nuclear Fission (Practice Test)

###### 19.13: Nuclear Fusion (Practice Test)

###### 19.14: Nuclear Reactors (Practice Test)

###### 19.15: Breeder Reactor

- Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR)
- 1-More on Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR)
- 2-More on Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR)

##### Chapter 20: Nuclear Radiations (30 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 20.1: Interaction of Nuclear Radiations With Matter (Practice Test)

- Interaction of Radiation With Matter
- Interaction of Alpha Particles With Matter
- More on Interaction of Alpha Particles With Matter
- Interaction of Beta Particles With Matter
- Interaction of Gamma Rays With Matter
- More on Interaction of Gamma Rays With Matter
- Interaction of Neutrons With Matter
- Radiation Detectors

###### 20.2: Wilson Cloud Chamber

###### 20.3: Geiger Counter

###### 20.4: Solid State Detectors

###### 20.5: Radiation Exposure

###### 20.6: Radiation Damage

###### 20.7: Effect of Radiation Damage (Practice Test)

- More on Biological effects of radiation
- Biological effects of radiation-problem
- Protection from radiation

###### 20.8: Biological and Medical Uses of Radiation

- Biological and medical uses of radiation
- More on Biological and medical uses of radiation
- Treatment of Cancer

###### 20.9: Radiation Techniques in Other Fields (Practice Test)

- Chemical reactions induced by radiation
- More on Chemical reactions induced by radiation
- Polymerisation, Sterilization and food preservation
- More on Polymerisation, Sterilization and food preservation
- Radiation Methods in Archaeology
- More on Polymerisation, Sterilization and food preservation

### Periodic Classification Class-XII

##### Chapter 1: Periodic Classification (10 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 1.1: Introduction

###### 1.2: Dobereiner’s Triads

###### 1.3: Newland’s Law of Octaves

###### 1.4: Lothar Meyer’s Classification

###### 1.5: Mendeleev’s Periodic Table and Periodic Law

###### 1.6: Modern Periodic Law- Periodic Table Based on Moseley’s Contribution

###### 1.7: Classification and Long Form of Periodic Table (Practice Test)

###### 1.8: Types of Elements Based on Electronic Configuration

##### Chapter 2: Hydrogen (13 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 2.1: Introduction

###### 2.2: Position of Hydrogen in Periodic Table

###### 2.3: Industrial Preparations of Hydrogen (Practice Test)

- Preparation of Hydrogen by Electrolysis
- Preparation of Hydrogen by Steam-Coke Process
- Preparation of Hydrogen From Natural Gas
- Preparation of Hydrogen by Thermal Decomposition
- Decomposition of Ammonia

###### 2.4: Atomic Hydrogen

###### 2.5: Binary Compounds of Hydrogen (Practice Test)

###### 2.6: Isotopes of Hydrogen

##### Chapter 3: s-Block Elements (22 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 3.1: Introduction

###### 3.2: Chemical Properties of s-Block Elements

###### 3.3: Occurrence and Extraction of Metals

###### 3.4: Industrially Important Compounds of s-Block Elements (Practice Test)

- Solvay Process of sodium carbonate
- Uses of Sodium Carbonate
- Preparation of Baking soda
- Uses of Sodium Bicarbonates
- Industrial Preparation of Sodium Hydroxide
- Physical Properties of Sodium Hydroxide
- Reaction of Sodium Hydroxide with Acids
- Reaction of Sodium Hydroxide with Ammonium Chloride
- Uses of Sodium Hydroxide
- Preparation of Magnesium sulphate
- Uses of Magnesium Sulphate
- Role of Gypsum in Agriculture and Industry
- Bleaching Powder
- Preparation of Bleaching Powder in Laboratory
- Preparation of Bleaching Powder in Industry
- Physical Properties of Bleaching Powder
- Reaction of Bleaching Powder with Water
- Reaction of Bleaching Powder with Strong Acids
- Reaction of Bleaching Powder with Carbondioxide and Water

##### Chapter 4: p-Block Elements (58 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 4.1: Introduction (Practice Test)

###### 4.2: Boric Acid (Practice Test)

- Preparation of Boric acid on Commercial Scale
- Properties of Boric acid
- Manufacture of Borax
- Properties of Borax

###### 4.3: Metallurgy of Metals (Practice Test)

- Occurrence of Aluminium
- Metallurgy of Aluminium
- Electrolysis of Pure Alumina
- Reaction of Aluminium with Air
- Reaction of Aluminium with Non-Metals
- Reaction of Aluminium with Acids and Alkalies
- Preparation of Potash Alum
- Uses of Potash Alum

###### 4.4: Allotropy (Practice Test)

- Allotropy and Allotropic Forms of Carbon
- Diamond
- Structure of Diamond
- Graphite
- Structure of Graphite
- Uses of Diamond and Graphite

###### 4.5: Lead Pigments

###### 4.6: Nitric Acid (Practice Test)

- Preparation of Nitric Acid in Laboratory
- Physical Properties of Nitric Acid
- Nitric Acid as an Acid
- Reaction of Nitric Acid with Mg and Mn
- Reaction of Nitric Acid with Cu, Ag and Hg
- Reaction of conc. Nitric Acid with Metals
- Reaction of Nitric Acid with Zn
- Effect of Temperature on Vapour Pressure
- Nitration Reaction
- Formation of Aqua Regia
- Uses of Nitric Acids

###### 4.7: Allotropic Forms of Sulphur (Practice Test)

- Rhombic Sulphur
- Preparation of Rhombic Sulphur
- Monoclinic Sulphur
- Preparation of Monoclinic Sulphur
- Plastic Sulphur

###### 4.8: Hydrogen Sulphide (Practice Test)

###### 4.9: Sulphuric Acid (Practice Test)

- Preparation of Sulphuric Acid through Contact Process
- Physical Properties of Sulphuric Acid
- Sulphuric Acid as an Acid
- Oxidation of Metals with Sulphuric Acid
- Oxidation of Non-Metals with Sulphuric Acid
- Sulphuric Acid as Drying Agent
- Uses of Sulphuric Acid
- Manufacture of fertilisers
- Manufacture of Detergents
- As battery Acid in Cars

###### 4.10: Chlorine (Practice Test)

- Preparation of Chlorine From Nelson’s Cell
- Preparation of Chlorine From Castner-Kellner’s Cell
- Physical Properties of Chlorine
- Reaction of Chlorine with Metals
- Reaction of Chlorine with Non-Metals
- Addition Reactions of Chlorine
- Substitution Reactions of Chlorine
- Oxidation and Bleaching Action of Chlorine
- Uses of Chlorine

##### Chapter 5: d-Block Elements (Transition Elements) (36 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 5.1: Introduction

###### 5.2: General Characteristics (Practice Test)

- Typical and non-Typical Transition Elements
- Binding Energies of Transition Elements
- More on Binding Energies of Transition Elements
- Melting and Boiling points of Transition Elements
- Oxidation State of Transition Elements
- More Characteristics of Transition Elements
- Paramagnetism of Transition Elements
- Catalytic Properties of Transition elements
- Complex Compounds
- Components of Complex Compounds
- More on Components of Complex Compounds
- Chelates
- Nomenclature of Complex Compounds
- More on Nomenclature of Complex Compounds

###### 5.3: Metallurgy of Copper (Practice Test)

###### 5.4: Chemistry of Silver Nitrate

###### 5.5: Copper Sulphate

###### 5.6: Potassium Chromate (Practice Test)

###### 5.7: Potassium Dichromate (Practice Test)

###### 5.8: Potassium Permanganate (Practice Test)

- Preparation of Potassium Permanganate
- More on Preparation of Potassium Permanganate
- Properties of Potassium Permanganate
- More on Properties of Potassium Permanganate

###### 5.9: Corrosion and its Prevention (Practice Test)

###### 5.10: Tin Plating

##### Chapter 6: Introduction to Organic Chemistry (31 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 6.1: Natural Sources of Organic Compounds (Practice Test)

- Basic Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- Modern Definition of Organic Chemistry
- Coal and Its Types
- Destructive Distillation of Coal
- Natural Gas

###### 6.2: Petroleum

###### 6.3: Cracking

###### 6.4: Polymerisation (Practice Test)

###### 6.5: Classification of Organic Compounds or Types of Organic Compounds (Practice Test)

###### 6.6: Homologous Series

###### 6.7: Isomerism (Practice Test)

###### 6.8: Nomenclature (Practice Test)

- Nomenclature of Alkanes
- More on Nomenclature of Alkanes
- Nomenclature of Alkenes
- Nomenclature of Alkynes
- Amines and its Nomenclature
- Nomenclature of Alcohols
- Nomenclature of Aldehydes
- Nomenclature of Ketones
- Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids
- Nomenclature of Esters
- Nomenclature of Ethers
- Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides

##### Chapter 7: Chemistry of Hydrocarbons (70 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 7.1: Open Chain and Closed Chain Hydrocarbons (Practice Test)

###### 7.2: Chemistry of Methane (Practice Test)

- Physical Properties of Methane
- Preparation of Methane
- More on Preparation of Alkane
- More on Preparation of Methane
- Halogenations of Alkanes
- Halogenation of Alkanes
- More on Halogenation of Alkanes
- Combustion of Alkanes
- Uses of Methane and Ethane

###### 7.3: Chemistry of Ethane (Practice Test)

- Preparation of Ethane
- Preparation of Alkane
- Addition of Hydrogen in Alkene
- More on Addition of Hydrogen in Alkene
- Reactions of Grignard Reagent with CNCl,Alcohols and CO2
- Addition of Oxygen in Alkene

###### 7.4: Chemistry of Ethene (Practice Test)

- Sp2 Hybridization
- Preparation of Alkene
- More on Preparation of Alkene
- Dehydration of Alcohols
- Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl Halides
- Dehalogenation of Vicinal Dihalides
- Partial Hydrogenation of Alkynes
- Physical properties of Alkenes
- Hydrogenation of Alkenes
- Halogenations of Alkenes
- Addition of Halogens in Alkene
- Hydrohalogenation of Alkenes
- Addition of Sulphuric Acid in Alkene
- Addition of Hypohalous Acid (HOX) in Alkene
- Polymerisation of Alkenes
- Reaction of Ethene with Water
- Combustion and Polymerisation of Ethene
- Oxidation of Alkenes
- Hydroxylation of Alkene
- Uses of Ethene
- Physical Properties of Ethene

###### 7.5: Chemistry of Ethyne (Practice Test)

- Sp Hybridization
- Preparation of Ethyne
- Physical properties of Alkynes
- Hydrogenation of Ethyne
- Addition Reaction of Halogens
- Hydrohalogenation of Ethyne
- Hydrogenation of Alkenes
- Addition of Ammonia and Hydrogen Cyanide in Alkynes
- Addition of Water in Alkynes
- Oxidation Reactions in Alkynes
- Acidic Nature of Alkynes
- Uses of Acetylene

###### 7.6: Benzene (Practice Test)

- Benzene,Molecular Formula
- Preparation of Benzene from cyclohexane and Acetylene
- Preparation of Benzene from Alkanes
- Preparation of Benzene in the Laboratory
- Physical Properties of Benzene
- Structure of Benzene

###### 7.7: Molecular Orbital Treatment of Benzene (Practice Test)

- The Stability of Benzene
- Halogenation of Benzene
- Nitration of Benzene
- Sulphonation of Benzene
- Friedel-Crafts Reaction, Alkylation
- Friedel-Crafts Reaction, Acylation
- Halogenation of Benzene in the Presence of Light
- Catalytic Oxidation of Benzene
- ortho and para Directing Groups
- Meta-Directing Groups

##### Chapter 8: Alkyl Halides (16 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 8.1: Classification of Alkyl Halides

###### 8.2: Nomenclature (Practice Test)

- Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides
- Preparation of Alkyl Halides From Alcohols
- Preparation of Alkyl Halides From Alkenes & Alkanes

###### 8.3: Reactions (Practice Test)

###### 8.4: Mechanism of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions (Practice Test)

- Nucleophilic Substitution Bimolecular(SN2)
- Nucleophilic Substitution Unimolecular(SN1)
- Preparation of Grignard Reagent
- Reactivity of Grignard Reagent
- Reactions of Grignard Reagent with CNCl,Alcohols and CO2
- Reactions of Grignard Reagent with Methanal and Ethanal
- Reactions of Grignard Reagent with Propanone and Epoxide
- ?-Elimination Reactions
- E1 Mechanism
- E2 Mechanism

##### Chapter 9: Carbon Compounds with Oxygen Containing Functional Groups (43 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 9.1: Alcohols (Practice Test)

- Introduction to Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
- Classification of Alcohols
- Nomenclature of Alcohols
- Industrial Preparation of Methanol
- Physical Properties of Alcohol
- Esterification
- Lucas Test
- Distinction Between Methanol and Ethanol
- Uses of alcohol
- Industrial Preparation of Ethanol
- More on Oxidation of Alcohols
- Reactions of Alcohols in which O-H Bond is Broken
- Preparation of Ethers
- Reactions of Alcohols in which C-O Bond is Broken
- Dehydration of Alcohols

###### 9.2: Phenols (Practice Test)

- Nomenclature of Phenols
- Preparation of Phenol
- Reactions of Phenol Due to -OH Group
- Nitration of Phenol
- Sulphonation of Phenol
- Halogenation & Hydrogenation of Phenol

###### 9.3: Ethers (Practice Test)

###### 9.4: Aldehydes and Ketones (Practice Test)

- Introduction to Aldehydes and Ketones
- Nomenclature of Aldehydes
- Nomenclature of Ketones
- Preparation of Formaldehyde
- Oxidation of Aldehydes
- Reactions of Carbonyl compounds with Hydrazine
- Addition of Alcohols in Ethanal
- Fehling’s Solution Test
- Cannizaro’s Reaction
- Catalytic Reduction of Aldehyde and Ketone
- Uses of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde

###### 9.5: Carboxylic Acids (Practice Test)

- Carboxylic Group
- Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids
- Manufacture of Acetic Acid
- Preparation of Acetic Acid in Laboratory
- Esterification
- Kolbe’s Electrolytic Method

###### 9.6: Esters (Practice Test)

##### Chapter 10: Chemistry of Life (32 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 10.1: Definition and Introduction (Practice Test)

###### 10.2: Food and Nutrition (Practice Test)

###### 10.3: Carbohydrates (Practice Test)

- Carbohydrates
- Classification of Carbohydrates,Monosaccharides
- Disaccharides
- Polysaccharides
- Starch
- Cellulose

###### 10.4: Amino Acids (Practice Test)

- Amino Acids
- Nomenclature of Amino Acids
- Structure of Amino Acids
- Peptides and Proteins
- Structural formula and other feactures of Amino acids

###### 10.5: Proteins (Practice Test)

###### 10.6: Lipids (Practice Test)

- Structure and Composition of Fats and Oils
- Classification of Lipids
- Rancidity of Fats and Oils
- Saponification Number & Iodine Number
- Waxes
- Waxes and Terpenoids
- Steroids

###### 10.7: Enzymes (Practice Test)

###### 10.8: Vitamins (Practice Test)

###### 10.9: Digestion of Food

###### 10.10: Absorption or Assimilation (Practice Test)

##### Chapter 11: Chemical Industries in Pakistan (21 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 11.1: Fertilizers

###### 11.2: Detergents

###### 11.3: Glass

###### 11.4: Rayon (Fibre) (Practice Test)

###### 11.5: Plastics (Practice Test)

- Sources and Usage of Plastics
- Structure of some Plastics
- Thermoplastics
- Manufacture of Thermoplastic
- More on Manufacture of Thermoplastic
- Thermosetting Plastics
- Manufacturing of Thermosetting Plastic

###### 11.6: Paints (Practice Test)

- Raw Materials for Oil Paints
- More on Raw Materials for Oil Paints
- Manufacture of Paints
- Composition of Oil Paints
- Composition of Water Paints
- Characteristics of a Good Paint
- Composition of Varnishes
- Preparation of Varnish
- Application of Varnishes

### Chemistry Class-XII

##### Chapter 1: Periodic Classification (10 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 1.1: Introduction

###### 1.2: Dobereiner’s Triads

###### 1.3: Newland’s Law of Octaves

###### 1.4: Lothar Meyer’s Classification

###### 1.5: Mendeleev’s Periodic Table and Periodic Law

###### 1.6: Modern Periodic Law- Periodic Table Based on Moseley’s Contribution

###### 1.7: Classification and Long Form of Periodic Table (Practice Test)

###### 1.8: Types of Elements Based on Electronic Configuration

##### Chapter 2: Hydrogen (13 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 2.1: Introduction

###### 2.2: Position of Hydrogen in Periodic Table

###### 2.3: Industrial Preparations of Hydrogen (Practice Test)

- Preparation of Hydrogen by Electrolysis
- Preparation of Hydrogen by Steam-Coke Process
- Preparation of Hydrogen From Natural Gas
- Preparation of Hydrogen by Thermal Decomposition
- Decomposition of Ammonia

###### 2.4: Atomic Hydrogen

###### 2.5: Binary Compounds of Hydrogen (Practice Test)

###### 2.6: Isotopes of Hydrogen

##### Chapter 3: s-Block Elements (22 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 3.1: Introduction

###### 3.2: Chemical Properties of s-Block Elements

###### 3.3: Occurrence and Extraction of Metals

###### 3.4: Industrially Important Compounds of s-Block Elements (Practice Test)

- Solvay Process of sodium carbonate
- Uses of Sodium Carbonate
- Preparation of Baking soda
- Uses of Sodium Bicarbonates
- Industrial Preparation of Sodium Hydroxide
- Physical Properties of Sodium Hydroxide
- Reaction of Sodium Hydroxide with Acids
- Reaction of Sodium Hydroxide with Ammonium Chloride
- Uses of Sodium Hydroxide
- Preparation of Magnesium sulphate
- Uses of Magnesium Sulphate
- Role of Gypsum in Agriculture and Industry
- Bleaching Powder
- Preparation of Bleaching Powder in Laboratory
- Preparation of Bleaching Powder in Industry
- Physical Properties of Bleaching Powder
- Reaction of Bleaching Powder with Water
- Reaction of Bleaching Powder with Strong Acids
- Reaction of Bleaching Powder with Carbondioxide and Water

##### Chapter 4: p-Block Elements (58 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 4.1: Introduction (Practice Test)

###### 4.2: Boric Acid (Practice Test)

- Preparation of Boric acid on Commercial Scale
- Properties of Boric acid
- Manufacture of Borax
- Properties of Borax

###### 4.3: Metallurgy of Metals (Practice Test)

- Occurrence of Aluminium
- Metallurgy of Aluminium
- Electrolysis of Pure Alumina
- Reaction of Aluminium with Air
- Reaction of Aluminium with Non-Metals
- Reaction of Aluminium with Acids and Alkalies
- Preparation of Potash Alum
- Uses of Potash Alum

###### 4.4: Allotropy (Practice Test)

- Allotropy and Allotropic Forms of Carbon
- Diamond
- Structure of Diamond
- Graphite
- Structure of Graphite
- Uses of Diamond and Graphite

###### 4.5: Lead Pigments

###### 4.6: Nitric Acid (Practice Test)

- Preparation of Nitric Acid in Laboratory
- Physical Properties of Nitric Acid
- Nitric Acid as an Acid
- Reaction of Nitric Acid with Mg and Mn
- Reaction of Nitric Acid with Cu, Ag and Hg
- Reaction of conc. Nitric Acid with Metals
- Reaction of Nitric Acid with Zn
- Effect of Temperature on Vapour Pressure
- Nitration Reaction
- Formation of Aqua Regia
- Uses of Nitric Acids

###### 4.7: Allotropic Forms of Sulphur (Practice Test)

- Rhombic Sulphur
- Preparation of Rhombic Sulphur
- Monoclinic Sulphur
- Preparation of Monoclinic Sulphur
- Plastic Sulphur

###### 4.8: Hydrogen Sulphide (Practice Test)

###### 4.9: Sulphuric Acid (Practice Test)

- Preparation of Sulphuric Acid through Contact Process
- Physical Properties of Sulphuric Acid
- Sulphuric Acid as an Acid
- Oxidation of Metals with Sulphuric Acid
- Oxidation of Non-Metals with Sulphuric Acid
- Sulphuric Acid as Drying Agent
- Uses of Sulphuric Acid
- Manufacture of fertilisers
- Manufacture of Detergents
- As battery Acid in Cars

###### 4.10: Chlorine (Practice Test)

- Preparation of Chlorine From Nelson’s Cell
- Preparation of Chlorine From Castner-Kellner’s Cell
- Physical Properties of Chlorine
- Reaction of Chlorine with Metals
- Reaction of Chlorine with Non-Metals
- Addition Reactions of Chlorine
- Substitution Reactions of Chlorine
- Oxidation and Bleaching Action of Chlorine
- Uses of Chlorine

##### Chapter 5: d-Block Elements (Transition Elements) (36 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 5.1: Introduction

###### 5.2: General Characteristics (Practice Test)

- Typical and non-Typical Transition Elements
- Binding Energies of Transition Elements
- More on Binding Energies of Transition Elements
- Melting and Boiling points of Transition Elements
- Oxidation State of Transition Elements
- More Characteristics of Transition Elements
- Paramagnetism of Transition Elements
- Catalytic Properties of Transition elements
- Complex Compounds
- Components of Complex Compounds
- More on Components of Complex Compounds
- Chelates
- Nomenclature of Complex Compounds
- More on Nomenclature of Complex Compounds

###### 5.3: Metallurgy of Copper (Practice Test)

###### 5.4: Chemistry of Silver Nitrate

###### 5.5: Copper Sulphate

###### 5.6: Potassium Chromate (Practice Test)

###### 5.7: Potassium Dichromate (Practice Test)

###### 5.8: Potassium Permanganate (Practice Test)

- Preparation of Potassium Permanganate
- More on Preparation of Potassium Permanganate
- Properties of Potassium Permanganate
- More on Properties of Potassium Permanganate

###### 5.9: Corrosion and its Prevention (Practice Test)

###### 5.10: Tin Plating

##### Chapter 6: Introduction to Organic Chemistry (31 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 6.1: Natural Sources of Organic Compounds (Practice Test)

- Basic Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- Modern Definition of Organic Chemistry
- Coal and Its Types
- Destructive Distillation of Coal
- Natural Gas

###### 6.2: Petroleum

###### 6.3: Cracking

###### 6.4: Polymerisation (Practice Test)

###### 6.5: Classification of Organic Compounds or Types of Organic Compounds (Practice Test)

###### 6.6: Homologous Series

###### 6.7: Isomerism (Practice Test)

###### 6.8: Nomenclature (Practice Test)

- Nomenclature of Alkanes
- More on Nomenclature of Alkanes
- Nomenclature of Alkenes
- Nomenclature of Alkynes
- Amines and its Nomenclature
- Nomenclature of Alcohols
- Nomenclature of Aldehydes
- Nomenclature of Ketones
- Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids
- Nomenclature of Esters
- Nomenclature of Ethers
- Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides

##### Chapter 7: Chemistry of Hydrocarbons (70 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 7.1: Open Chain and Closed Chain Hydrocarbons (Practice Test)

###### 7.2: Chemistry of Methane (Practice Test)

- Physical Properties of Methane
- Preparation of Methane
- More on Preparation of Alkane
- More on Preparation of Methane
- Halogenations of Alkanes
- Halogenation of Alkanes
- More on Halogenation of Alkanes
- Combustion of Alkanes
- Uses of Methane and Ethane

###### 7.3: Chemistry of Ethane (Practice Test)

- Preparation of Ethane
- Preparation of Alkane
- Addition of Hydrogen in Alkene
- More on Addition of Hydrogen in Alkene
- Reactions of Grignard Reagent with CNCl,Alcohols and CO2
- Addition of Oxygen in Alkene

###### 7.4: Chemistry of Ethene (Practice Test)

- Sp2 Hybridization
- Preparation of Alkene
- More on Preparation of Alkene
- Dehydration of Alcohols
- Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl Halides
- Dehalogenation of Vicinal Dihalides
- Partial Hydrogenation of Alkynes
- Physical properties of Alkenes
- Hydrogenation of Alkenes
- Halogenations of Alkenes
- Addition of Halogens in Alkene
- Hydrohalogenation of Alkenes
- Addition of Sulphuric Acid in Alkene
- Addition of Hypohalous Acid (HOX) in Alkene
- Polymerisation of Alkenes
- Reaction of Ethene with Water
- Combustion and Polymerisation of Ethene
- Oxidation of Alkenes
- Hydroxylation of Alkene
- Uses of Ethene
- Physical Properties of Ethene

###### 7.5: Chemistry of Ethyne (Practice Test)

- Sp Hybridization
- Preparation of Ethyne
- Physical properties of Alkynes
- Hydrogenation of Ethyne
- Addition Reaction of Halogens
- Hydrohalogenation of Ethyne
- Hydrogenation of Alkenes
- Addition of Ammonia and Hydrogen Cyanide in Alkynes
- Addition of Water in Alkynes
- Oxidation Reactions in Alkynes
- Acidic Nature of Alkynes
- Uses of Acetylene

###### 7.6: Benzene (Practice Test)

- Benzene,Molecular Formula
- Preparation of Benzene from cyclohexane and Acetylene
- Preparation of Benzene from Alkanes
- Preparation of Benzene in the Laboratory
- Physical Properties of Benzene
- Structure of Benzene

###### 7.7: Molecular Orbital Treatment of Benzene (Practice Test)

- The Stability of Benzene
- Halogenation of Benzene
- Nitration of Benzene
- Sulphonation of Benzene
- Friedel-Crafts Reaction, Alkylation
- Friedel-Crafts Reaction, Acylation
- Halogenation of Benzene in the Presence of Light
- Catalytic Oxidation of Benzene
- ortho and para Directing Groups
- Meta-Directing Groups

##### Chapter 8: Alkyl Halides (16 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 8.1: Classification of Alkyl Halides

###### 8.2: Nomenclature (Practice Test)

- Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides
- Preparation of Alkyl Halides From Alcohols
- Preparation of Alkyl Halides From Alkenes & Alkanes

###### 8.3: Reactions (Practice Test)

###### 8.4: Mechanism of Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions (Practice Test)

- Nucleophilic Substitution Bimolecular(SN2)
- Nucleophilic Substitution Unimolecular(SN1)
- Preparation of Grignard Reagent
- Reactivity of Grignard Reagent
- Reactions of Grignard Reagent with CNCl,Alcohols and CO2
- Reactions of Grignard Reagent with Methanal and Ethanal
- Reactions of Grignard Reagent with Propanone and Epoxide
- ?-Elimination Reactions
- E1 Mechanism
- E2 Mechanism

##### Chapter 9: Carbon Compounds with Oxygen Containing Functional Groups (43 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 9.1: Alcohols (Practice Test)

- Introduction to Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
- Classification of Alcohols
- Nomenclature of Alcohols
- Industrial Preparation of Methanol
- Physical Properties of Alcohol
- Esterification
- Lucas Test
- Distinction Between Methanol and Ethanol
- Uses of alcohol
- Industrial Preparation of Ethanol
- More on Oxidation of Alcohols
- Reactions of Alcohols in which O-H Bond is Broken
- Preparation of Ethers
- Reactions of Alcohols in which C-O Bond is Broken
- Dehydration of Alcohols

###### 9.2: Phenols (Practice Test)

- Nomenclature of Phenols
- Preparation of Phenol
- Reactions of Phenol Due to -OH Group
- Nitration of Phenol
- Sulphonation of Phenol
- Halogenation & Hydrogenation of Phenol

###### 9.3: Ethers (Practice Test)

###### 9.4: Aldehydes and Ketones (Practice Test)

- Introduction to Aldehydes and Ketones
- Nomenclature of Aldehydes
- Nomenclature of Ketones
- Preparation of Formaldehyde
- Oxidation of Aldehydes
- Reactions of Carbonyl compounds with Hydrazine
- Addition of Alcohols in Ethanal
- Fehling’s Solution Test
- Cannizaro’s Reaction
- Catalytic Reduction of Aldehyde and Ketone
- Uses of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde

###### 9.5: Carboxylic Acids (Practice Test)

- Carboxylic Group
- Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids
- Manufacture of Acetic Acid
- Preparation of Acetic Acid in Laboratory
- Esterification
- Kolbe’s Electrolytic Method

###### 9.6: Esters (Practice Test)

##### Chapter 10: Chemistry of Life (32 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 10.1: Definition and Introduction (Practice Test)

###### 10.2: Food and Nutrition (Practice Test)

###### 10.3: Carbohydrates (Practice Test)

- Carbohydrates
- Classification of Carbohydrates,Monosaccharides
- Disaccharides
- Polysaccharides
- Starch
- Cellulose

###### 10.4: Amino Acids (Practice Test)

- Amino Acids
- Nomenclature of Amino Acids
- Structure of Amino Acids
- Peptides and Proteins
- Structural formula and other feactures of Amino acids

###### 10.5: Proteins (Practice Test)

###### 10.6: Lipids (Practice Test)

- Structure and Composition of Fats and Oils
- Classification of Lipids
- Rancidity of Fats and Oils
- Saponification Number & Iodine Number
- Waxes
- Waxes and Terpenoids
- Steroids

###### 10.7: Enzymes (Practice Test)

###### 10.8: Vitamins (Practice Test)

###### 10.9: Digestion of Food

###### 10.10: Absorption or Assimilation (Practice Test)

##### Chapter 11: Chemical Industries in Pakistan (21 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 11.1: Fertilizers

###### 11.2: Detergents

###### 11.3: Glass

###### 11.4: Rayon (Fibre) (Practice Test)

###### 11.5: Plastics (Practice Test)

- Sources and Usage of Plastics
- Structure of some Plastics
- Thermoplastics
- Manufacture of Thermoplastic
- More on Manufacture of Thermoplastic
- Thermosetting Plastics
- Manufacturing of Thermosetting Plastic

###### 11.6: Paints (Practice Test)

- Raw Materials for Oil Paints
- More on Raw Materials for Oil Paints
- Manufacture of Paints
- Composition of Oil Paints
- Composition of Water Paints
- Characteristics of a Good Paint
- Composition of Varnishes
- Preparation of Varnish
- Application of Varnishes

### Biology Class-XII

##### Chapter 1: Homeostasis (40 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 1.1: Homeostasis and its Various Aspects (Practice Test)

###### 1.2: Osmoregulation (Practice Test)

###### 1.3: Excretion (Practice Test)

- Excretion in Plants
- Excretion in Animals
- Nature of Excretory Products in Relation to Habitats
- Excretory Organs in Planaria
- Excretory Organs in Earthworm
- Excretion in Human
- Excretory Organs, Liver
- Excretory Organs in Cockroach
- Excretory System
- Urinary system
- Structure of Kidney
- Structure of Nephron
- Blood Circulation to Nephron
- Type of Nephron
- Function of Kidney
- Functions of Kidney
- Urea Formation, Kidney Filteration
- Concentration of Excretory Product
- Role of hormone in excretory products
- Kidney as Osmoregulatory Organ

###### 1.4: Kidney Problems and Their Remedies (Practice Test)

- Kidney Stone
- Removal of Kidney Stone
- Kidney (Renal) Failure, Dialysis
- Peritoneal Dialysis
- Kidney Transplant
- Kidney Transplant

###### 1.5: Thermoregulation (Practice Test)

- Adaptations in Plants to High Temperature
- Adaptations in Plants to Low Temperature
- Temparature Classification of Animals
- Regulation of Heat Exchange Between Animals and Enviroment

###### 1.6: Thermoregulation in Mammals (Man) (Practice Test)

- Regulatory Strategies
- Thermostat Function and Feedback Controls in Human and Fever
- Pyrexia and Pyrogens
- The Role of the Skin
- Skin and Lungs

##### Chapter 2: Support And Movement (68 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 2.1: Support In Plants (Practice Test)

- Support, Movement and Locomotion
- Parenchyma Tissues
- Collenchyma Tissues
- Sclerenchyma Tissues
- Secondary Growth
- Heart Sap Wood

###### 2.2: Movement In Plants (Practice Test)

- Types of Movements
- Tactic Movements
- Thermotaxis, Chemotaxis
- Turgor Movements
- Growth Movements
- Tropic Movements
- More on Tropic Movements
- Phototropism and Geotropism
- Nastic Movement
- Types of Nastic Movement
- More on Nastic Movements

###### 2.3: Role of Growth Substances in Plant Movement (Practice Test)

###### 2.4: Support and Locomotion in Animals

###### 2.5: Skeletal System (Practice Test)

- Hydrostatic Skeleton
- Exoskeleton
- ecdysis
- Endoskeleton
- Human Skeleton, Axial Skeleton
- Skull
- Ribs
- Vertebral Column
- Appendicular Skeleton
- Pelvic Girdle and hind limb
- Functions of Skeletal System
- Bones
- Cartilages
- More on Joints
- Types of Joints
- Synovial Joint
- Genetic Causes
- Hormonal Causes of Skeleton Deformities
- Nutritional Causes
- Disc-Slip
- Spondylosis
- Sciatica
- Repair of Broken Bones

###### 2.6: Muscular System (Practice Test)

- Muscular System
- Smooth and Cardiac Muscles
- Skeletal Muscles , Skeletal Muscle Fibre
- More on Skeletal Muscles , Skeletal Muscle Fibre
- Ultra Structure of Microfilaments
- Sliding Filament Model
- How Bridges are Controled
- Controlling the Actin-Myosin Interaction by Ca++ ions
- Energy for Muscle Contration, Muscle Fatigue
- Tetany, Cramp

###### 2.7: Arrangment of Skeletal Muscles for Skeletal Movement (Practice Test)

- Origin, Insertion, Belly, Ligaments and Tendons
- Muscles and Movements
- Arrangment of Skeletal Muscles for Skeletal Movement

###### 2.8: Locomotion (Practice Test)

- Locomotion In Amoeba
- Locomotion In Euglena
- More on Locomotion in Euglena and Ameoba
- Locomotion In Paramecium
- More on Locomotion in Paramecium
- Locomotion in Jelly Fish and Earthworm
- Locomotion in Star Fish and Snail
- Locomotion in Cockroach
- Locomotion in Fish
- Locomotion in Amphibian
- Locomotion in Reptiles
- Locomotion in Air
- Locomotion in Mammals

##### Chapter 3: Coordination and Control (50 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 3.1: Control In Plants (Practice Test)

- Stimuli, Receptors,Effectors, Response
- Control Through Hormones in plants
- Types of Movements
- Biological Clocks and Circadian Rhythms
- Photoperiodism
- Responses to Environmental Stresses
- Defense Against Pathgoens in Plants

###### 3.2: Plant Hormones (Practice Test)

###### 3.3: Co-ordination And Control In Animals (Practice Test)

- Types of Coordination
- Coordinators and Effectors, Response
- Nerve Cell or Neuron
- Nerve Types
- Neuron Types

###### 3.4: Nerve Impulse (Practice Test)

###### 3.5: Evolution of Nervous System (Practice Test)

###### 3.6: Human Nervous System (Practice Test)

- Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain
- The Divisions of Brain, Forebrain
- Mind Brain and Hind Brain
- Spinal Cord
- More on Spinal Cord
- Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
- More on Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

###### 3.7: Receptors (Practice Test)

###### 3.8: Effects of Drugs On Coordination (Practice Test)

###### 3.9: Chemical Coordination (Practice Test)

- Important Endocrine Glands
- Mode of Hormone Action
- Feedback Mechanisms
- Pituitary Gland
- Pituitary’s Median lobe and posterior lobe
- Thyroid Gland
- Parathyroid Glands
- Pancreas
- Adrenal Glands
- Gonads

###### 3.10: Animal Behaviour (Practice Test)

- Innate Behaviour
- More on Innate Behaviour
- More on Innate Behaviour
- Learning Behaviour
- More on Learning Behaviour
- Social Behaviours
- Agonistic Behaviour
- Biological Clocks and Circadian Rhythms

##### Chapter 4: Reproduction (38 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 4.1: Reproduction in Plants (Practice Test)

- Reproduction, Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
- Reproduction in Plants
- Artificial Methods of Asexual Reproduction
- Tissue Culturing and Genetic engineering

###### 4.2: Reproduction in Plants (Practice Test)

- Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants, The Flower
- Structure of Ovules
- Structure of Pollen Grain
- Life Cycle of Flowering Plants
- Pollination
- Maize, Pollination and Fertilisation
- Seed and Fruit Formation
- Development and Structure of Seed
- Structure of Mature Seed

###### 4.3: Inflorescence (Practice Test)

###### 4.4: Seed Dormancy (Practice Test)

###### 4.5: Transition To Flowering Stage (Practice Test)

###### 4.6: Vernalization (Practice Test)

###### 4.7: Photoperiodism (Practice Test)

- Photoperiodism
- Mechanism of Photoperiodism
- In Vitro is Fertilization of Plant Egg and Its Importance

###### 4.8: Asexual Reproduction (Practice Test)

###### 4.9: Sexual Reproduction (Practice Test)

###### 4.10: Reproductive Organs Of A Human Male (Practice Test)

###### 4.11: Reproductive Organs Of A Human Female (Practice Test)

###### 4.12: Female Reproductive Cycles (Practice Test)

###### 4.13: Hormonal Control of Reproductive Cycles (Practice Test)

##### Chapter 5: Growth And Development (17 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 5.1: Growth and Development in Plants (Practice Test)

###### 5.2: Conditions For Growth

###### 5.3: Growth And Development In Animals (Practice Test)

- Growth and Development in Animals
- Development of Chick (Fertilization and Incubation)
- Cleavage, Morulla
- Blastula and Gastrulation
- Notochord and Mesoderm Formation
- Neurulation

###### 5.4: Cell Differentiation and Its Mechanism (Practice Test)

###### 5.5: Role Of Nucleus In Development

###### 5.6: Role Of Cytoplasm In Development

###### 5.7: Regeneration (Practice Test)

###### 5.8: Abnormal Development (Practice Test)

##### Chapter 6: Chromosomes And DNA (34 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 6.1: Chromosomes (Practice Test)

- Gametes, Organisms have Number of Chromosomes Specific to their Speci
- Gene and Genome, Chromosome, Chromatin
- Types of Chromosomes

###### 6.2: Chemical Composition of Chromosomes (Practice Test)

###### 6.3: Chromosomes As Carriers Of Genes

###### 6.4: Chromosomal Theory Of Heredity (Practice Test)

- The Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
- DNA as Hereditary Material,vehicle
- More on DNA as Hereditary Material, vehicle
- Mononucleotide
- Nucleotide and Polynucleotide
- How Does the DNA of Chromosome work?
- Significance of Base Squence
- Watson-Crick Model of DNA
- Replication of DNA
- Types of Replication
- The Meselson-Stahl Experiment

###### 6.5: Genes-The Unit Of Hereditary Information (Practice Test)

- Genes and Enzymes
- Experiment of Beadle and Tatum on Neurospora
- Types of RNA
- Transcription
- Advance Transcription
- Advance Transcription
- More on Transcription
- Post-Transcriptional Modification of mRNA
- Translation
- Advance Translation,Protein Synthesis
- More on Translation
- Gentic Code

###### 6.6: Mutation (Practice Test)

##### Chapter 7: Cell Cycle (19 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 7.1: Interphase And Cell Division (Practice Test)

###### 7.2: Cell Death (Necrosis and Apoptosis)

###### 7.3: Mitosis (Practice Test)

- Mitosis, Karyokinesis, Cytokinesis,Prophase
- More on Mitosis 1, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
- More on Mitosis 2, Cytokinesis
- Significance of Mitosis
- Cancer (Uncontrolled Cell Division)
- Cancer Types

###### 7.4: Meiosis (Practice Test)

- Phases of Meiosis
- Meiosis-I, Prophase I
- More on Meiosis-I, Prophase I
- Metaphase I, Anaphase I and Telophase I
- Meiosis-II
- Significance of Meiosis
- Significance of Meiosis
- Chromosomal Mutations
- Turner Sydrome

##### Chapter 8: Variation and Genetics (27 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 8.1: Genes and Alleles (Practice Test)

###### 8.2: Review of Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance (Practice Test)

- Mendels Law of Segregation
- Mendels Law of Independent Assortment
- Mendel’s Interpretation
- Punnet Square,Test Cross
- Punnet Square

###### 8.3: Incomplete Dominance And Codominance (Practice Test)

###### 8.4: Multiple Alleles (Practice Test)

###### 8.5: Linkage and Crossing Over (Practice Test)

###### 8.6: Sex Determination And Sex Linkage (Practice Test)

- Sex Linkage
- Sex Determination, Chromosome in Drosophila
- Sex Linkage in Drosophila
- Comparison of Chromosomal Determination of Sex Between Drosophila and
- Chromosome in Man
- Sex-Linkage in Human
- Sex Linked Inheritance, Clour Blindness
- Haemophilia
- More on Haemophilia

###### 8.7: Diabetes Mellitus (Practice Test)

##### Chapter 9: Biotechnology (39 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 9.1: Biotechnology (Practice Test)

- Genetic engineering
- Scope and Importance of Biotechnology
- Objectives and Basic Steps of Genetic Engineering

###### 9.2: Genetic Engineering (Practice Test)

- Recombinant DNA Technology
- Advance Recombinant DNA Technology, How to Get a Gene
- Recombinant DNA Technology Depends on Enzymes
- Molecular Sciccor: Restriction Endonucleases
- Molecular Carrier: Vector
- More on Molecular Carrier: Vector
- DNA Ligase and Expression System
- Insulin production
- Isolating the Insulin Gene
- Application of Genetically Modified Bacteria
- Biological Principles of Sewage Treatment
- Bioremediation
- Bioremediation
- Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation
- Transgenic Plants
- Application of Transgenic Plants
- Agricultural plants With Improved Traits
- Transgenic or Genetically modified Animals
- Methods of Creation of Transgenic Animals
- DNA Sequencing
- Sanger’s Method
- Gel Electrophorasis
- Analyzing DNA
- Genomic Library
- The Human Genome Project
- Benefits of Human Genome Project
- Role of Biotechnology in Diagnosis of Diseases
- Cystic Fibrosis
- Gene Therapy
- Gene Therapy (Ex-Vivo)
- Gene Therapy In-Vivo Method

###### 9.3: Tissue Culture (Practice Test)

- Tissue Culture
- Types of Tissue Culture
- Animal Cloning
- Agricultural plants With Improved Traits
- Production of Insects, Viruses and Herbicide Resistant Plants

##### Chapter 10: Evolution (16 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 10.1: Theories Of Evoultion (Practice Test)

- Concept of Evolution VS Special Creation
- Evolution From Prokaryotes to Eukaryotes
- Inheritance of Acquired Charateristics
- Objections on Lamarckian Theory
- Weismann’s Theory
- Theory of Natural Selection
- More on Theory of Natural Selection
- Variations And Natural Selection
- Alfred Russell Wallace
- Discontinuous and Continuous Variations

###### 10.2: Evidence In Favour Of Organic Evoultion (Practice Test)

###### 10.3: Importance of Natural Selection As Possible Mechanism For Evolution (Practice Test)

###### 10.4: Artificial Selection And Its Role (Practice Test)

###### 10.5: Gene Frequencies and Their Role In Evolution (Practice Test)

###### 10.6: Endangered Species (Practice Test)

##### Chapter 11: Ecosystem (25 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 11.1: Levels of Organisation (Practice Test)

###### 11.2: Approaches To Ecology (Practice Test)

###### 11.3: The Ecosystem (Practice Test)

- Components of Ecosystem
- Abiotic Components
- Abiotic Components (Temperature and Water)
- Abiotic Components (Fire, Atmosphere and Wind)
- Edaphic Factors
- Topographic Factors
- Biotic Components
- Processes in Ecosystem and Interaction Between Biotic Components

###### 11.4: Biogeochemical Cycles (Practice Test)

###### 11.5: Interdependence Of Organisms And Their Significance (Practice Test)

###### 11.6: Ecological Succession (Practice Test)

- Succession
- Two Major Form of Succession
- Secondary Succession
- Hydrosere
- More on Hydrosere
- Wood land climax forest stage of hydrosere
- Xerosere
- More on Xerosere

##### Chapter 12: Some Major Ecosystems (18 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 12.1: Life In Fresh Water (Practice Test)

- Fresh Water (Standing Water Bodies)
- Components of Pond Ecosystem
- Biotic components of Pond Ecosystem

###### 12.2: Life In Marine Water (Practice Test)

###### 12.3: Terrestrial Ecosystem (Biomes) (Practice Test)

- Tropical Rain Forest
- Coniferous Alpine and Boreal Forests
- Temperate Deciduous Forests
- More on Temperate Deciduous Forests
- The Grass Land Ecosystem
- More on Grass Land Ecosystem
- Savannah
- Desert Ecosystem
- Desert Ecosystem (Adaptations in plants)
- Desert Ecosystem (Adaptations in animals)
- Tundra Ecosystem
- Alpine Tundra

###### 12.4: The Flow Of Energy (Practice Test)

##### Chapter 13: Man And His Environment (13 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 13.1: Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources (Practice Test)

- Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources
- Renewable Resources (Land and Wildlife)
- Conventional Energy Resources
- Non – Conventional Energy Resources
- Nuclear Power
- Geothermal Power
- Solar energy
- Tidal Power and Wind Power

###### 13.2: Pollution (Practice Test)

### Statistics Class-XII

##### Chapter 1: Representation and Exploration of Data (36 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 1.1: Exploring and Interpreting Data (Practice Test)

- Data
- Exploring Data
- Interpretation of Data
- Introducing Parameters and Statistic
- Basic Terminologies in Statistics
- Accuracy of Measurements & Errors
- Qualitative/Quantitative Data
- Types of Data(Continuous/Discrete)
- Types of Data By Source

###### 1.2: Frequency Distribution (Practice Test)

- Construction of Continuous Frequency Table
- Problem 1: Construction of Continuous Frequency Table
- Discrete Frequency Distribution
- Cumulative Frequency Distribution

###### 1.3: Charts/Diagrams (Practice Test)

- Charts/Diagrams
- Graphical Representation of Data-Horizontal/Vertical Bar Graph
- Graphical Representation & Interpretation of Data-Multiple Bar Graph
- Component Bar Chart
- Percentage Component Bar Chart
- Composite Bar Chart
- Graphical Representation & Interpretation of Data- Pie Graph
- Pictograms

###### 1.4: Graphs (Practice Test)

- Graphs
- Interpretation of Data Through Graphs
- Creating a Histogram
- Problem 1: Constructing Histogram with Equal Intervals
- Frequency Polygon
- Cumulative Frequency Polygon
- Graphical Representation & Interpretation of Data-Dot Graph
- Representation and Interpretation of Data through Stem and Leaf
- Graphical Representation & Interpretation of Data- Line Graph
- Graph of Time Series
- Difference Between Histogram and Historigram

###### 1.5: Types of Frequency Curves (Practice Test)

- Frequency Curve
- Common Shapes of Frequency Curves
- Positively Skewed Frequency Curves
- Negatively Skewed Frequency Curves

##### Chapter 2: Measure of Central Tendency or Averages (47 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 2.1: Averages (Practice Test)

###### 2.2: Arithematic Mean

- Arithmetic Mean for Ungrouped Data
- Problem 1: A.M of Ungrouped Data by Direct Method
- Arithmetic Mean of Grouped Data by Direct Method
- Problem 1: A.M for Grouped Data by Direct Method
- Arithmetic Mean of Ungrouped Data using Short-cut Method
- Problem 1: A.M for Ungrouped Data by Short formula Method
- Arithmetic Mean of Grouped Data using Short-cut Method
- Problem 1: A.M for Grouped Data by Short formula Method
- Arithmetic Mean of Ungrouped Data using Coding Method
- Problem 1: A.M for Ungrouped Data by Coding Method
- Finding A.M for Grouped Data-Coding Method
- Problem 1: A.M for Grouped Data by Coding Method

###### 2.3: Weighted/Combined Mean (Practice Test)

- Combined Arithmetic Mean
- Where to Use Arithmetic Mean
- Applications of Weighted Averages
- Introducing Weighted Average
- Problem – Weighted Average for Ungrouped Data
- Properties of Arithmetic Mean
- More on Properties of Arithmetic Mean

###### 2.4: Median and Quantiles (Practice Test)

- Median for Ungrouped Data
- Median of Grouped Data
- Quartiles for Individual Observations
- More on Quartiles for Individual Observations
- Problem-Quartiles for Individual Observations
- Quartiles for a Frequency Distribution
- Problem-Quartiles for a Frequency Distribution
- Estimating Quartiles for Grouped Data using Graph
- Quantiles from Discrete Data
- More on Quantiles from Discrete Data
- Quartiles From Grouped Data
- More on Quartiles From Grouped Data
- Deciles and Percentiles from Grouped Data
- More on Deciles and Percentiles from Grouped Data
- Problem – Deciles and Percentiles from Grouped Data
- Problem – Deciles and Percentiles from Grouped Data

###### 2.5: Mode

###### 2.6: Geometric Mean and Harmonic Mean (Practice Test)

- Geometric Mean of Ungrouped Data
- Geometric Mean for Grouped Data
- Harmonic Mean for Ungrouped Data
- Harmonic Mean for Grouped Data
- Where to Use Harmonic Mean
- Where to Use Geometric Mean
- Change in Origin and Scale
- Empirical Relationship Between Mean, Median and Mode
- Relationship Between Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic mean

##### Chapter 3: Measures of Dispersion (63 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 3.1: Dispersion (Practice Test)

###### 3.2: Range

- Range of Ungrouped Data
- Problem 1: Calculation of Range for Raw or Ungrouped Data
- Calculation of Range for Grouped Data
- Problem 1: Calculation of Range for Grouped Data

###### 3.3: Mean Deviation

- Mean Deviation of Ungrouped Data
- Problem-Mean Deviation for Ungrouped Data by Mean
- Problem-Mean Deviation for Ungrouped Data by Median
- Mean Deviation of Ungrouped Data from Mode
- Problem-Mean Deviation for Ungrouped Data by Mode
- Mean Deviation of Grouped Data from Mean
- Problem-Mean Deviation for Grouped Data by Mean
- Mean Deviation of Grouped Data from Median
- Problem-Mean Deviation for Grouped Data by Median
- Calculate the Mean Deviation from the following Group Data according
- Problem-Mean Deviation for Grouped Data by Mode

###### 3.4: Quartile Deviation (Practice Test)

- Concept of Quartile Deviation
- Problem-Concept of Quartile Deviation
- Interquartile Range for Data Set Represented in Different Ways
- More on Interquartile Range for Data Set Represented in Different Ways

###### 3.5: Variance and Standard Deviation (Practice Test)

- Variance and Standard Deviation
- Problem 1: Introduction to Variance & S.D
- Variance and Standard Deviation of Ungrouped Data
- Calculation of the Variance and Standard Deviation by Direct Method
- Variance and Standard Deviation of Ungrouped Data by Short Method
- Variance and Standard Deviation of Ungrouped Data by Short-cut Method
- Variance and Standard Deviation of Grouped Data
- Variance and Standard Deviation of Grouped Data by Short Method
- Variance and Standard Deviation of Grouped Data by Short-cut Method
- Variance and Standard Deviation of Grouped Data by Coding Method
- Effect of Change of Origin and Scale on S.D
- Properties of Variance and Standard Deviation
- More on Properties of Variance and Standard Deviation
- More on Properties of Variance and Standard Deviation

###### 3.6: Coefficient of Dispersion (Practice Test)

- Absolute and Relative Dispersion
- Coefficient of Dispersion and Its Measure
- Range Coefficient of Dispersion and its measure
- Problem-Range Coefficient of Dispersion and its measure
- Coefficient of Variation and its Measure
- More on Problem-Coefficient of Dispersion and Its Measure
- Quartile Coefficient of Relative Dispersion and its Measure
- Quartile Coefficient of Relative Dispersion and its Measure
- Mean Coefficient of Dispersion

###### 3.7: Moments (Practice Test)

- Introducing Moments
- Introducing Moments
- More on Introducing Moments
- Problem-Introducing Moments
- More on Problem-Introducing Moments
- Problem-Moments for group data
- Problem-Moments for group data
- Prob-Relation Between Mean Moments and Raw Moments
- More on Prob-Relation Between Mean Moments and Raw Moments

###### 3.8: Skewed vs Unskewed Curves (Practice Test)

- Introducing Skewness
- Skewed Vs Unskewed Curves
- More on Skewed Vs Unskewed Curves
- Measures of Skewness
- More on Measures of Skewness
- Problem-Measures of Skewness

###### 3.9: Kurtosis (Practice Test)

- Kurtosis and Its Measurements
- More on Kurtosis and Its Measurements
- Problem-Measures of Kurtosis
- More on Problem-Measures of Kurtosis

##### Chapter 4: Index Numbers (28 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 4.1: Introduction to Index Numbers (Practice Test)

###### 4.2: Main Steps to Construct Price Index Numbers (Practice Test)

- Calculating Index Number By Fixed Base Method
- More on Calculating Index Number By Fixed Base Method
- Calculating Index Number By Chain Base Method

###### 4.3: Unweighted and Weighted Price Index Numbers (Practice Test)

- Calculation of Unweighted Index Number by Simple Aggregative Method
- Problem-Unweighted Index Number by Simple Aggregative Method
- Calculation of Unweighted Index Number by Simple Average Method
- Problem-Unweighted Index Number by Simple Average Method
- Calculation of Unweighted Index Number by Average of Relative Method
- Weighted Aggregative Price Index Numbers By Laspeyres Method
- Weighted Aggregative Price Index Numbers By Paasches Method
- Weighted Aggregative Price Index Numbers By Fishers Method

###### 4.4: Quantity Index Numbers

- Quantity Index Number
- Problem – Simple Aggregative Quantity Index Number
- Problem – Weighted Aggregative Quantity Index Number
- Problem – Simple Average of Relatives Quantity Index Number
- Problem – Weighted Average of Relatives Quantity Index Number

###### 4.5: Value Index

###### 4.6: Theoretical Tests of Index Number

- Tests of Index Number
- More on Tests of Index Number
- Problem – Time Reversal Test
- Problem – Factor Reversal Test

###### 4.7: Consumer Price Index Numbers (Practice Test)

- Consumer Price Index Numbers
- Consumer Price Vs Wholesale Price Index Numbers
- Problem- Consumer Price Vs Wholesale Price Index Numbers
- Sensitive Price Index (SPI)

##### Chapter 5: Regression and Correlation Analysis (6 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 5.1: Regression Analysis (Practice Test)

- Introduction to Regression
- Deterministic and Probabilistic Relations or Models
- Scatter Diagram
- Approximating Line by the Principle of Least Squares

###### 5.2: Correlation (Practice Test)

##### Chapter 6: Analysis of Time Series (15 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 6.1: Time Series (Practice Test)

###### 6.2: Components of Time Series (Practice Test)

###### 6.3: Estimation of Secular Trend (Practice Test)

- Method of Free Hand Curve
- Method of Semi-Averages
- How to Calculate Moving Averages
- Applications of Moving Averages
- Problem – Application for Moving Averages
- Estimating Secular Trend by Method of Least Squares
- Fitting a Parabola or second Degree Curve
- Detrending
- Time Series Decomposition

##### Chapter 7: Set Theory (21 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 7.1: Set Theory

###### 7.2: Algebra of Sets

- Commutative Law of Sets
- Associative Laws
- Idempotent Laws of Sets
- Identity Laws of Sets
- Commplementation Law
- Law of Double Complementation
- Law of Empty Set and Universal Set
- Distributive Laws

###### 7.3: Counting Methods (Practice Test)

- A Basic Counting Procedure
- Introducing Factorials
- Problem- Introducing Factorials
- Introducing Permutations
- Problem- Introducing Permutations (Distinct Objects)
- Permutations When the Objects are Not Distinct
- Introduction to Combinations
- Problem1-Introducing Combinations

##### Chapter 8: Introduction to Probability (31 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 8.1: Basic Probability (Practice Test)

- Introducing Probability
- Random Experiment
- Sample Space
- Basic Terminologies used in Probability
- Types of Events
- Probability for Multiple Event
- Problem – Probability for Multiple Event
- Mutually Vs Non-Mutually Exclusive Events
- Problem – Mutually Vs Non-Mutually Exclusive Events
- Equally Likely Vs Exhaustive Events
- Conditional Probability
- Properties of Probabilities

###### 8.2: Addition Law for Probability (Practice Test)

- Addition Law of Probability
- More on Applications of Addition of Probabilities
- Addition Laws of Probability
- Problem-Addition Laws of Probability
- Addition of Probabilities of Overlapping Events by Venn Diagram
- Problem-Addition of Probabilities of Overlapping Eventsby Venn Diagram
- Addition of Probabilities of Disjoint Events by Venn Diagram
- Addition of Probabilities of Subset Events

###### 8.3: Multiplication Law for Probability (Practice Test)

- Multiplication Law of Probability
- Application of Multiplication Laws of Probabalities
- More on Application of Multiplication Laws of Probabalities
- Multiplication of Probabilities of Dependent Events
- Problem- Multiplication of Proababilities of Dependent Events
- Multiplication of Proababilities of Independent Events
- Problem-Multiplication of Proababilities of Independent Events

###### 8.4: Conditional Probability (Practice Test)

- Conditional Probability
- Application of Conditional Probability
- Conditional Probability By Sample and Reduced Sample Space Approach
- Prob-Conditional Probability By Sample and Reduced Sample Space Appro

##### Chapter 9: Random Variables and Distributions (43 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 9.1: Random Variables (Practice Test)

###### 9.2: Discrete Probability Distribution (Practice Test)

- Introducing Probability Distribution
- Probability Mass Function
- Probability Distribution of Discrete Random Variable
- More on Probability Distribution of Discrete Random Variable
- Problem – Probability Distribution of Discrete Random Variable
- Cummulative Distribution and Probability Mass Function
- The Expected Value of Random Variable
- Use of Expected Value in Decision Making
- More on Use of Expected Value in Decision Making

###### 9.3: Continuous Probability Distribution (Practice Test)

- The PDF of Continuous Distribution
- More on The PDF of Continuous Distribution
- Finding Area Under the Curve with Trapezoidal Rule
- More on Finding Area Under the Curve with Trapezoidal Rule
- Probability Density Function using Integration Method
- Problem-Probability Density Function using Integration Method
- More on Problem-Probability Density Function using Integration Method
- Cummulative Distribution and Probability Density Function
- Problem-Cummulative Distribution and Probability Density Function

###### 9.4: The Expectation of Random Variable (Practice Test)

- Expectation
- Applications of Expectation
- How Probability Helps Expectations
- The Expectation of a Discrete Distribution
- Problem1-The Expectation of a Discrete Distribution
- Problem2-The Expectation of a Discrete Distribution
- More on Problem2-The Expectation of a Discrete Distribution
- Laws of Expectation
- More on Laws of Expectation
- Addition and Subtraction Laws of Expectation
- Multiplication Law of Expectation
- Problem-Laws of Expectation

###### 9.5: Properties of Variances (Practice Test)

- Properties of Variance1
- Properties of Variance2
- Properties of Variance3
- Properties of Variance4
- Problem1 – Properties of Variance
- Problem2 – Properties of Variance

###### 9.6: Sum or Differences of Variances of Random Variables (Practice Test)

- Variance of the Sum or Difference of Two Random Variables1
- Variance of the Sum or Difference of Two Random Variables2
- Variance of the Sum or Difference of Two Random Variables3
- Variance of the Sum or Difference of Two Random Variables4
- Problem-Variance of the Sum or Difference of Two Random Variables

##### Chapter 10: Binomial and Hypergeometric Distributions (14 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 10.1: The Binomial Distribution (Practice Test)

- The Bernoulli Distribution
- The Binomial Distribution
- More on Binomial Distribution
- Visualizing Binomial Distribution
- Probability of Binomial Distribution – Example
- Binomial Distribution for All Possible Value of Random Variable
- More on Binomial Distribution for All Possible Value of Random Variab
- Problem- Probability of Binomial Distribution
- Binomial Frequency Distribution
- Mean of Binomial Distribution
- Variance of Binomial Distribution

###### 10.2: The Hypergeometric Distribution (Practice Test)

- Introducing Hypergeometric Distribution
- More on Hypergeometric Distribution
- Properties of Hypergeometric Distribution

##### Chapter 11: The Normal Distribution (12 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 11.1: The Normal Distribution (Practice Test)

- Introducing Normal Distribution
- Cummulative Distribution Function of Normal Distribution
- Standard Normal Distribution
- Characteristics of the Normal Probability Distribution
- Areas under the Normal Curve
- Tabulated Areas of Normal Distribution
- More on Tabulated Areas of Normal Distribution
- Tabulated Areas of Normal Distribution for Centre Case
- Inverse Use of Table of Areas Under Normal Curve
- More on Inverse Use of Table of Areas Under Normal Curve1
- Problem- Inverse Use of Table of Areas Under Normal Curve
- Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution

##### Chapter 12: Sampling and Sampling Distributions (52 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 12.1: Basic Concepts (Practice Test)

- Applications of Sampling
- Central Limit Theorem
- Population Vs Sample
- Population and Its Kind
- Sample and Sampling
- Sampling Units and Frame
- Sampling Versus Census
- Sampling and Non-Sampling Errors
- Precision and accuracy
- Limitations of Sampling
- Sampling Design and Its Types
- A Representative Vs Biased Sample

###### 12.2: Probability And Non-Probability sampling (Practice Test)

- Probability and Non-probability Sampling
- Random Digits
- Simple Random Sampling
- Systematic Sampling
- Stratified Sampling
- Cluster Sampling
- Introducing Purposive and Quota Sampling

###### 12.3: Errors in Sampling

- True Value, Accuracy, Precision and Error
- Prob-True Value, Accuracy, Precision and Error
- Prob-Simple Random Sampling and Sampling Distribution

###### 12.4: Sampling and Sampling Distributions (Practice Test)

- Sampling
- Sampling Distribution
- Sampling With Replacement and Without Replacement
- Sampling Distribution and Standard Error of Statistic
- Prob-Sampling Distribution and Standard Error of Statistic
- Prob-Sampling Distribution From General Populations

###### 12.5: Sampling Distributions (Practice Test)

- Sampling Distribution of Mean
- More on Sampling Distribution of Mean
- Graphical Representation of Sampling Distribution of Means
- Standard Deviation of the Sampling Distribution With Replacement
- More on Standard Deviation of the Sampling Distribution With Replacem
- Problem- Standard Deviation of Sampling Distribution With Replacement
- Standard Deviation of Sampling Distribution Without Replacement
- More on Standard Deviation of Sampling Distribution Without Replaceme
- Sampling Distribution of Difference of Means
- Variance of Difference of Random Variables
- More on Sampling Distribution of Difference of Means
- More on Difference of Variance of Random Variables
- Problem-Sampling Distribution of Difference of Means
- More on Problem-Sampling Distribution of Difference of Means
- Further to Problem-Sampling Distribution of Difference of Means
- Further to Problem-Sampling Distribution of Difference of Means
- Sampling Distribution of Proportions
- Problem- Sampling Distribution of Proportions
- More on Problem- Sampling Distribution of Proportions
- More on Problem- Sampling Distribution of Proportions
- Sampling Distribution of Difference between Proportions
- Sampling Distribution of Variances
- More on Sampling Distribution of Variances
- Further stuff on Sampling Distribution of Variances

##### Chapter 13: Statistical Inference:Estimation (17 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 13.1: Statistical Inference (Practice Test)

###### 13.2: Point Estimation

###### 13.3: Unbiased Estimator (Practice Test)

###### 13.4: Confidence Interval (Practice Test)

- Introducing Confidence Interval
- Confidence Interval for Means with Large Samples
- Confidence Interval for Mue when Sigma Square is Unknown
- Confidence Interval for Differences between Means with Large Sample s
- Confidence Interval for Mean with Small Sample
- Problem-Confidence Interval Estimates of Mean From Small Samples
- Confidence Interval for differences between Means for small samples w
- Confidence Interval for Paired Observations
- Confidence Interval for Proportions
- Confidence Intervals for Difference Between Proportions
- Confidence Interval for Paired Observations

##### Chapter 14: Statistical Inference:Hypothesis Testing (27 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 14.1: Basic Concepts (Practice Test)

- Testing hypothesis
- Formulation of Null and Alternative Hypothesis
- Prob-Formulation of Null and Alternative Hypothesis
- Simple and Composite Hypothesis
- Test-Statistics
- Acceptance and Rejection Regions
- Type 1 and 2 Errors
- The Significance Level
- One Tailed and Two Tailed Test
- General Procedure for Testing Hypothesis
- Left Tailed and Right Tailed Tests
- Prob-Left Tailed and Right Tailed Tests
- Deciding Upon an Appropriate Test
- Level of Significance and Level of Confidence

###### 14.2: Testing Hypothesis about Population Mean (Practice Test)

- Testing Hypothesis about Mean of a Normal population when Sigma is kn
- Testing Hypothesis about Mean of a Normal population when Sigma is Un
- The Students t Distribution
- Hypothesis Testing About the Mean with Unknown Variance
- Comparing the Mean of Two Normal Populations
- Comparing the Means of Two Normal Distributions with unequal Unknown
- The Paired t Test

###### 14.3: Testing Hypothesis about Population Proportion (Practice Test)

- Test Based on Normal Approximation
- Example- Test Based on Normal Approximation
- Test of Hypothesis About the Difference Between Two Population Propor
- Prob-Test of Hypothesis About the Difference Between Two Population P
- Testing That Difference Between Two Population Proportions Equals Som
- Prob-Testing That Difference Between Two Population Proportions Equal

##### Chapter 15: Association of Attributes (9 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 15.1: The Association of Attributes (Practice Test)

- Variables and Attributes
- Classification by Attributes
- Independence and Criterion of Independence
- Association of Attributes
- Coefficient of Association
- Categorical data
- Contigency Tables
- Testing Hypothesis of Independence between Attributes
- Yates Correction for Continuity

### Computer Science Class-XII

##### Chapter 1: Concept of Computer Programming (16 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 1.1: Overview

- What is Computer Programming
- Computer Program
- Introduction to problem solving
- Problem solving method
- What is Top Down Design

###### 1.2: Programming Languages in General

- Language Translators : An Overview
- Types of Error: Syntax error
- Types of Error: Runtime error
- Types of Error: Logical error
- Single Board Computer Raspberry Pi
- Program Documentation: Importance and Types

###### 1.3: Programming Languages (Practice Test)

- Programming Langauges : An Overview
- Generations on Computer Languages
- Using Turtle to teach Childern

###### 1.4: Object Oriented Programming

##### Chapter 2: Algorithm and Flowcharts (17 videos)

###### 2.1: Algorithm

###### 2.2: Psuedocode

###### 2.3: Flowcharts

- What is a Flow chart
- Basic Componets to design a Flow Chart
- Advantages of Flow chart
- Flow chart requirements
- Development of Flow charts
- Flow Chart Examples
- Flow Chart Examples_2

###### 2.4: Control Structures

- What is Control Structure
- Unconditional transfer of control
- Why a Control Structure is important in Programming

###### 2.5: Types of Flowcharts

###### 2.6: Advantages of Flow chart

###### 2.7: Disadvantages of Flow chart

##### Chapter 3: An Overview of ‘C’ Language (14 videos)

###### 3.1: Introduction to C

- Brief history of C
- A simple C Program
- Understanding of Integrated Development Environment : IDE
- How to Create Environment before Writing a Computer Program
- Compiler – turbo c++ (creating , saving , editting)
- Compiling , Linking and executing a program
- setting the output and source directories
- Pre-Processor directives

###### 3.2: The development Cycle

- Flow chart to illustrate working of compiler
- A simple C Program
- How to Create Environment before Writing a Computer Program
- Comments and terminator statements
- Escape sequence in C
- Good Programming Practice

##### Chapter 4: C Fundamentals (14 videos)

###### 4.1: Overview

###### 4.2: Identifiers and Keywords

###### 4.3: Datatype

###### 4.4: Constants

###### 4.5: Variable

###### 4.6: Arrays

- Problem Statement: Why we need Arrays
- What are Arrays
- Terminologies used in Arrays
- Representation of Array

##### Chapter 5: Operators and Expressions (16 videos)

###### 5.1: Overview

###### 5.2: Classification of Operators

###### 5.3: Order of Precedence

###### 5.4: Assignment Operators

###### 5.5: Relational Operators

###### 5.6: Logical/ Boolean Operators

###### 5.7: Increment & Decrement Operators

###### 5.8: Conversion of Data type

###### 5.9: Library Functions

##### Chapter 6: Input and Output Statements (10 videos)

###### 6.1: Overview

###### 6.2: Unformatted I/O Functions

- getchar(): I/O handling function
- Difference between getch() and getche() function
- Working of gets function
- Working of puts function

###### 6.3: Formatted I/O Functions

##### Chapter 7: Selection Control Structures (20 videos)

###### 7.1: Overview

- What is Control Structure
- Unconditional transfer of control
- Why a Control Structure is important in Programming
- Introduction to decision and selection statements

###### 7.2: The if Selection Structure

- Simple IF statement in C
- Nested if statement
- Problem solving using nested if statement
- Comparison of nested if and sequence of ifs
- Use of Logical operator with if else
- Conditional operator alternative to if-else

###### 7.3: The if-else Selection Structure

- Introduction to if-else structure
- if-else example problems
- Complex problem solving using nested loops
- Problems on if-else Structure
- More Problems on if-else Structure

###### 7.4: The switch Statement

- What is Switch.. Case
- Switch default statement
- Examples on Switch .. Case
- Break statements in C
- Comparison between if, case and conditional operators
- Problem solving 1
- Problem solving 2

##### Chapter 8: Iteration Control Structures (25 videos)

###### 8.1: Overview

###### 8.2: The for Loop

- Why we need For Loop
- Structure of For Loop and Working
- Programs on For Loop
- Problem solving using for loop
- Requirement of loops within loop
- Nested Loop with example

###### 8.3: The while Loop

- Structure of While Loop and its Working
- Programs on While Loop
- Example problems of while loop
- Continue statement
- Problem solving using while loop

###### 8.4: The do-while Loop

- Why there is a need of Do.. While Loop
- Structure of Do.. While loop
- Difference between while and Do while
- Program on Do.. While Loop

###### 8.5: Nested Loops

- Requirement of loops within loop
- Nested Loop with example
- Combining Loop types
- Complex problem solving using nested loops
- Difference between For Loop, Do While and While loop
- Break statements in C
- Continue statement

##### Chapter 9: Functions (13 videos)

###### 9.1: Overview

- What is Function
- Why there is a need of Function in Programming
- Advantages of using functions
- Difference between structured and unstructured programming

###### 9.2: Classification of Functions

###### 9.3: General Form of Function

- Signature of function
- Function without argument
- Function that return multiple values
- More on function that return multiple values
- Using more than one functions in a Program
- Function overloading

###### 9.4: Recursive Function

##### Chapter 10: Arrays (Optional) (16 videos)

###### 10.1: Overview

###### 10.2: One-Dimensional Arrays

###### 10.3: Manipulating Arrays

- Accessing array index with examples
- Fill array index with examples
- Static Method
- Dynamic Method Using Loop
- Traversing an Array
- sizeof() operator

###### 10.4: Multi-Dimensional Array

##### Chapter 11: Strings (Optional) (8 videos)

###### 11.1: Overview

- What are Strings
- Initialization of Strings
- String handling in C
- Declaring and intializing string variable in C
- String asssignment in C
- Concatenation of Strings
- Copying of Strings
- Finding a character or word in a string
- Finding length of a String
- Swapping of Strings
- Example on Different String Functions

##### Chapter 12: Structures and Unions (Optional) (4 videos)

###### 12.1: Overview

##### Chapter 13: Pointers (Optional) (11 videos)

###### 13.1: Overview

###### 13.2: Pointer Operators

- Reference operator
- Dereference operator
- Pointers and Functions
- Functions Returning Pointers
- Pointer initialization with examples

###### 13.3: Pointers and Arrays

###### 13.4: Pointers and Strings

##### Chapter 14: Introduction to File Handling (12 videos)

###### 14.1: Introduction

- Introduction to file handling
- Types of files: Text and Binary
- Opening a file
- Modes of opening a file
- More on Modes of opening a file
- Reading input file
- Closing a file
- bof() function
- eof() function
- Stream and its types
- reading/writing files character by character
- reading/writing files using strings

##### Chapter 15: Data Management Systems (18 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 15.1: Overview (Practice Test)

- Data Operations
- Computer System and Its Components
- Planning a Database : Requirement Analysis
- identifying attributes and Entities
- Database Terminologies
- Keys : Primary Key
- Composite Keys
- Types of Keys : Sort Key
- Types of Keys : Super Key
- Traditional File Management System : Record and File
- Introduction to Database
- The Database Management System
- Advantages of Database System
- Disadvantages of Database System
- Objectives of DBMS
- Features of DBMS

###### 15.2: Components of Database Management System (Practice Test)

- Components of Data Base : Data, HW, SW, Personnel
- Database Languages for Relational Database : SQL
- Types of Database Model : Hierarcical Model

##### Chapter 16: Basics of MS Access 2000 (13 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 16.1: Overview (Practice Test)

- Introduction to MS-Access
- Benefits of Using Access
- Create Database Using Database Wizard
- Create Database without Using Database Wizard

###### 16.2: Identifying Microsoft Access Screen Elements

###### 16.3: Naming Fields and Determining Data Types

###### 16.4: Creating a Table using Table Design View (Practice Test)

- Charcateristics of Tables
- Field Properties in Design View 1
- Field Properties in Design View 2
- Field Properties in Design View 3
- Field Properties in Design View 4

###### 16.5: Creating a Table Using the Table Wizard

##### Chapter 17: Advanced MS Access 2000 (21 videos) (Practice Test)

###### 17.1: Creating and Modifying Relationships (Practice Test)

- Multiple Tables and Relationships
- Entity Relationship Model : Entity , Attribute and Relationship
- Cascade Update Related Fields and Cascade delete RF
- Introduction to Queries

###### 17.2: Creating Select Queries (Practice Test)

###### 17.3: Adding a Calculated Field to the Query

###### 17.4: Creating Forms (Practice Test)

###### 17.5: Creating a New Form Using Design View (Practice Test)

- Creating Form in a design view
- Adding Records Using a Form
- Using forms controls
- Making Sub forms in Access

###### 17.6: Creating a Report Using Report Design View (Practice Test)

- Purpose of Reports in Database
- Conditional Formatting
- Creating Reports Using Report Wizard
- Creating Reports Using Query
- Formatting Reports
- Saving and Printing Reports
- Linking
- Creating a SwitchBoard in Access

### Accounting Class-XII

##### Chapter 1: Accounts From Incomplete Records (19 videos)

###### 1.1: Introduction to Single Entry System

###### 1.2: Statement of Affairs Method

- Numerical 1: Statement of Affairs Method
- Numerical 2: Statement of Affairs Method
- Numerical 3: Statement of Affairs Method
- More on Numerical 3: Statement of Affairs Method

###### 1.3: Conversion Method

- Conversion Method
- Steps Involve in Conversion Method
- Total Debtors Account and Total Creditors Account
- Total Creditors Account
- Numerical 1: Conversion Method
- More on Numerical 1: Conversion Method
- More on Numerical 1: Conversion Method
- Margin and Mark-up
- Calculation of Missing Data using Mark-up Rate
- Calculation of Missing Data using Margin and Inventory Turnover
- Inventory lost in Fire or by Theft
- More on Inventory lost in Fire or by Theft
- More on Inventory lost in Fire or by Theft

##### Chapter 2: Accounts of Non-Profit Making Organizations (16 videos)

###### 2.1: Introduction of Non-Profit Making Organizations

- Non-Profit Organizations
- Accounts of Non-Profit Organizations
- Some Particular Terms of Non Profit Organisations
- More on Some Particular Terms of Non Profit Organisations

###### 2.2: Accounts of Non-Profit making Organization

- Receipt and Payment Account
- Example 1: Income and Expenditure Account
- Adjustment for Subscription
- Example: Ascertain the amount of Subscription
- Adjustment for Admission fee/ Entrance fee
- Example: Admission Fee
- Difference between Cash Book & Receipt and Payment Account
- Problem: Receipt and Payment Account
- More on Problem: Receipt and Payment Account
- Problem: Income & Expenditure Account
- Problem: Income & Expenditure Account
- Problem: Statement of Financial Position (Balance Sheet)

##### Chapter 3: Consignment Accounts (17 videos)

###### 3.1: Introduction of Consignment Accounts

- Consignment Accounts
- Important Terms used in Consignment Accounts
- More on Important Terms used in Consignment Accounts

###### 3.2: Accounting Treatments

- Journal Entries in the Books of Consignor
- More on Journal Entries in the Books of Consignor
- Ledger Accounts in the Books of Consignor
- Journal Entries in the Books of Consignee
- Ledger Accounts in the Books of Consignee

###### 3.3: Adjustments

- Valuation of unsold Consignment Stock
- Example: Valuation of unsold Consignment Stock
- Loss of Stock or Goods
- Abnormal Loss in Consignment
- Invoicing Goods Heigher than Cost

###### 3.4: Problems

- Problem 1: Consignment Account (Normal Loss)
- More on Problem 1: Consignment Account (Normal Loss)
- Problem 2: Consignment Account (Abnormal Loss)
- More on Problem 2: Consignment Account (Normal Loss)

##### Chapter 4: Joint Stock Company (36 videos)

###### 4.1: Introduction to Company Accounts

- Company and its kinds on the basis of Article of Association
- Kinds of Companies on the basis of Legal Form
- Kinds of Companies on the basis of Composition
- Characteristics of Joint Stock Company
- More on Characteristics of Joint Stock Company

###### 4.2: Important Legal Documents

###### 4.3: Classes of Share Capital

###### 4.4: Issuance of Shares

- Issuance of Shares
- Accounting for Issuance of Shares
- Accounting for Issue of Shares in case of Over-Subscription
- Accounting for Issue of Shares in case of Under-Subscription
- Subsequent Issue of Shares
- Issue of Shares at Premium
- Problem: Issue of Shares at Premium
- More on Problem: Issue of Shares at Premium
- Problem: Issue of Shares at Discount
- More on Problem: Issue of Shares at Discount
- Consideration for Issue of Shares
- Consideration for Issue of Shares – Running Business

###### 4.5: Introduction of Debentures, Bonds and TFCs

###### 4.6: Issuance of Debentures

- Difference between Debenture holder and Shareholder
- Preference of Debenture Issue over Share Issue
- Problem 1: Debentures issued for Cash
- More on Problem 1: Debentures issued for Cash
- Problem 2: Debentures issued in Consideration other than Cash
- More on Problem 2: Debentures issued in Consideration other than Cash
- Issue of Debentures as Collateral Security

###### 4.7: Issuance and Redemption of Debentures

- Redemption of Debentures
- Different Cases of Issuance and Redemption of Debentures
- Issuance of Debentures at Premium, Redeemable at Par
- Issuance of Debentures at Par, Redeemable at Premium
- Issuance of Debentures at Discount and Redeemable at Premium
- More on Issuance of Debentures at Discount and Redeemable at Premium

##### Chapter 5: Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves (21 videos)

###### 5.1: Acquisition of a Running business

###### 5.2: Methods of Calculating Depreciation

- Methods of Depreciation
- Problem 1: Machinery Account using Fixed Installment Method of Deprec
- Problem 2: Fixed Installment Method of Depreciation (Advance Level)
- More on Problem 2: Fixed Installment Method of Depreciation (Advance
- More on Problem 2: Fixed Installment Method of Depreciation (Advance
- Reducing or Diminishing Balance Method of Depreciation
- Sum of Year’s Digits Method
- Problem 3: Sum of Year’s Digits Method
- Annuity Method of Depreciation
- Sinking Fund Method of Depreciation
- Revaluation and Depletion Method of Depreciation
- Machine hour Rate and Mileage method of Depreciation

###### 5.3: Effects of Depreciation

###### 5.4: Reserve and Provision

- Reserve
- Provision
- Distinction between Provision and Reserve
- Distinction between Provision and Reserve-II

##### Chapter 6: Sole Proprietorship and Partnership (22 videos)

###### 6.1: Proprietorship

###### 6.2: Partnership

###### 6.3: Distribution of Profit and Loss

- Partnership Agreement
- Clauses under Partnership Agreement
- More on Clauses under Partnership Agreement
- Partnership Rules in the Absence of an Agreement
- Entries for Disribution of Profit
- Profit and Loss Appropriation Account
- Interest on Capital and Drawings
- More on Interest on Capital and Drawings
- Fixed and Fluctuating Capital
- More on Fixed and Fluctuating Capital
- Change in Profit sharing ratio
- Average Profit Method of Goodwill
- Super Profit Method of Goodwill
- Capitalization Method of Goodwill

###### 6.4: Problems

- Partnership Accounts – Numerical 1
- Partnership Accounts – More on Numerical 1
- Numerical 2: Profit/Loss Distribution under Partnership
- More on Numerical 2: Profit/Loss Distribution under Partnership
- More on Numerical 2: Profit/Loss Distribution under Partnership

##### Chapter 7: Partnership Accounts-Admission of a Partner (15 videos)

###### 7.1: Admission of a Partner

- Admission of a New Partner
- Calculation of Sacrifice Ratio
- Example: Calculation of Gain or Sacrifice Ratio of old Partners
- Revaluation of Assets & Liabilities
- Goodwill on Admission: When Goodwill Account does not Exist
- Premium Method for the Treatment of Goodwill
- Revaluation and Memorandum Revaluation Method
- Goodwill on Admission: Where Goodwill Account already Exists
- Adjustment regarding Capital
- Treatment of Reserves on Admission of a New Partner

###### 7.2: Problems

- Numerical 3: Journal Entries for Revaluation of Assets
- Numerical 4: Partnership-Admission of a Partner
- More on Numerical 4: Partnership-Admission of a Partner
- Numerical 5: Partnership-Revaluation Account on admission of a New Pa
- Numerical 6: Partnership-Balance Sheet on admission of a New Partner

##### Chapter 8: Partnership Accounts Retirement and Death (7 videos)

###### 8.1: Retirement of Partners

###### 8.2: Death of Partners

###### 8.3: Problems

- Numerical: Partnership-Journal Entries on death of a Partner
- More on Numerical: Partnership-Journal Entries on death of a Partner

##### Chapter 9: Partnership Accounts Dissolution of the Firm (14 videos)

###### 9.1: Dissolution of Partnership

- Dissolution of Partnership and Partnership Firm
- Accounting Treatment: Dissolution of Partnership Firm
- Modes of Dissolution of a Firm
- Dissolution of Partnership Firm by Court of Law
- Settlement of Accounts on Dissolution
- Realisation Account
- More on Realisation Account
- Treatment of Realisation Expenses
- Garner vs Murray Rule
- Dissolution of the Firm-When all partners are Insolvent
- Closing of Books in case Partners are Insolvent