Islamiat: New Book Karachi Board

Chapter-I Mcqs, Short and Long Questions,  Chapter 1 Ahadees, حد یت نبوی

Chapter 2, Ibadat, Roza, Reading and Exercise




CH#1    The Last Sermon of the Holy Prophet

        CH#2    Shah Abdul Latif

        CH#3    The Neem Tree (Poem)

        CH#4    Moen-Jo-Daro

        CH#5    Helen Keller

        CH#6    The Daffodils (Poem)    

        CH#7     Allama Iqbal

        CH#8     The Role of Women in the Pakistan           Movement

        CH#9     Children (Poem)

        CH#10   What the Quaid-i-Azam Said

        CH#11   Health is Wealth              

CH#12   Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening (Poem)

        CH#13    The Great War Hero

        CH#14    Nursing

        CH#15    The Miler of Dee (Poem)

      CH#16      Responsibilities of a Good Citizen

      CH#17      The Village Life in Pakistan

      CH#18      Abou Ben Adhem

      CH#19      The Secret of Success

      CH#20      The Guddu Barrage

Pakistan Study

CH#1      Ideological Basis of Pakistan

        CH#2      Making of Pakistan

        CH#3      Constitutional Development in Islamic Republic of Pakistan

        CH#4      Land and Climate of Pakistan   

        CH#5      Resources of Pakistan

        CH#6      Industrial Development in Pakistan

        CH#7      The Population of Pakistan

        CH#8      Culture  of Pakistan

        CH#9      Education in Pakistan

        CH#10    Pakistan-A Welfare  State        

CH#11    The Civic Life in Pakistan


   CH#1   Introductions to Computer (part 1) (part 2) (part 3) (part 4) (part 5) (part 6)

    CH#2   Computer Components (part 1) (part 2) (part 3) (part 4)

    CH#3   INPUT OUTPUT  devices (part 1) (part 2) (part 3) (part 4)

    CH#4   Storage Device

    CH#5   Data Representation

    CH#6   Boolean Algebra

    CH#7   Computer Software

    CH#8   INTRODUCTION to Windows Operating System


      CH#1   Introduction to Chemistry (part 1) (part 2) (part 3) (part 4) (part 5) (part 6) (part 7) (part 8) (part 9)

  CH#2 Chemical Combination

2.1: Law of Chemical Combinations  
  1. Introduction to Laws of Chemical Combinations
  2. Law of Conservation of Mass
  3. Law of Definite(Fixed) Proportion
  4. Law of Multiple Proportion
  5. Law of Reciprocal Proportion
2.2: Atomic Mass  
  1. Relative atomic mass and Atomic mass unit
  2. Calculating the Average Atomic Mass
  3. Chemical Formula
  4. Empirical formula
  5. Empirical formula-covalent and ionic compound
  6. Molecular formula
  7. Molecular mass
  8. Formula mass
  9. Determining Molar Mass and Empirical Formula of Compounds
2.3: Mole  
  1. Mole
  2. Avogadro’s Number
  3. Calculating Moles from Mass
  4. Calculating Mass from Moles
  5. Calculating Mass in Grams and Moles
  6. Mole-Mass Calculations
  7. Mole-Particle Calculations
  8. Calculating Mass in Grams of a Single Atom
  9. Calculating Number of Ions in the Compounds
  10. Calculating Number of Particles from Mass
  11. Calculating Mass and Moles of an Element from a Compound
2.4: Chemical Reaction or Chemical Change  
  1. Chemical Reactions or Chemical Change
  2. Decomposition Reactions
  3. Addition or Combination Reactions
  4. Single Displacement Reactions
  5. Double Displacement Reactions
  6. Combustion Reaction
  7. Chemical Equation and Writing of Chemical Equation
  8. Balancing of Chemical Equation
  9. Concept of Mole-Ratio Based on Balanced Chemical Equation
  10. Calculating the Amount of Reactant
  11. Calculating the Amount of Product
  12. Balancing the Equations and Identifying Types of Reaction


      CH#3   Atomic Structure

3.1: Introduction  
  1. Atoms – The Building Blocks of Matter
  2. Dalton’s Atomic Theory
  3. Representative particles
3.2: Discovery of Electrons  
  1. Discovery of Electron(Cathode rays)
  2. Properties of Cathode rays
  3. Discovery of Proton
  4. Properties of positive rays
  5. Discovery of Neutron
  6. Properties of Neutron
  7. Concept of Radioactivity
  8. Nature of Radioactivity
3.3: Rutherford Atomic Model  
  1. Rutherford’s Atomic Model
  2. Advantages and Defects in Rutherford’s Atomic Model
  3. Bohr’s Atomic Theory
3.4: Atomic Number (Z) and Mass Number (A)  
  1. Atomic Number and Mass Number
  2. Isotopes
  3. Uses of Isotopes
3.5: Electronic Configuration Based on Bohr’s Model  
  1. Electronic configuration
  2. More on Electronic configuration
  3. Give Name and Symbol for the Elements
  4. Electronic Configuration of Different Species

      CH#4   Periodicity of Element

4.1: The Search for a Classification  
  1. Dobereiner’s Triads Classification
  2. Newland’s Octaves Law
  3. Lother Meyer’s Classification
  4. Mendeleev’s Periodic table
  5. Advantages of Mendeleev’s Periodic Table
  6. Defects in Mendeleeve’s Periodic Table
  7. Modern Periodic Table
  8. Introduction to Periodic Law And Periodic Table
  9. Periods in Modern Periodic Table
  10. Groups in Modern Periodic Table
  11. Metals, Non-Metals and Metalloids
4.2: Some Periodic Properties of Atoms  
  1. Atomic Size and Atomic Radius
  2. Trend of Atomic Size and Atomic Radius in Periodic Table
  3. Ionization Energy
  4. Trend of Ionization Energy in Periodic Table
  5. Electron Affinity
  6. Trend of Electron Affinity in Periodic Table
  7. Electronegativity
  8. Trend of Electronegativity in Periodic Table

      CH#5   Chemical Bonding

5.1: Introduction
  1. Chemical Bond
5.2: Formation of Chemical Bonds
  1. Why Do Atoms Form Chemical Bond?
5.3: Types of Chemical Bonds
  1. Why Do Atoms Form Chemical Bond?
5.4: Ionic Bond or Electrovalent Bond  
  1. Ionic Bond
  2. Properties of Ionic Compound
5.5: Covalent Bond  
  1. Covalent Bond
  2. Types of Covalent Bonds
  3. Single Covalent Bond
  4. Double Covalent Bond
  5. Triple Covalent Bond
  6. Properties of Covalent Compound
  7. Electronegativity
  8. Non polar Covalent Bond
  9. Polar Covalent Bond
  10. Classify Bonds as Ionic or Covalent
  11. Drawing Lewis Dot and Cross Structures
5.6: Co-ordinate Covalent Bond or Dative Covalent Bond
  1. Dative Covalent Bond or Co-ordinate Covalent Bond
  2. Comparison Between Covalent and Co-ordinate Covalent Bond
5.7: Metallic Bonding  
  1. Metallic Bond
  2. Properties of Metals
5.8: Inter-Molecular Forces (Vander Waal’s Forces)  
  1. Types of Forces in Molecules
  2. Intermolecular Forces
  3. London Dispersion Forces
  4. Dipole-Dipole Interactions
  5. Hydrogen Bonding

      CH#6   States of Matter

6.1: Common States of Matter  
  1. Common States of Matter(solid, liq,gas,plasma)
  2. Kinetic Particle Theory
  3. Comparison of Physical States of Matter
  4. Intrconversion of Three States of Matter
  5. Conversion of Units
6.2: Diffusion in Gases and Liquids
  1. Diffusion and Effusion in Gases
  2. Diffusion in Liquids
6.3: Brownian Movement
  1. Brownian Movement

      CH#7   Solution and Suspension

7.1: Solution  
  1. Introduction to Solutions
  2. Types of Solutions on the Basis of Physical States
7.2: Factors Affecting Solubility  
  1. The Effect of Temperature
  2. The Effect of Pressure
  3. Solubility and Nature of Solute
  4. Solubility and Nature of Solvent
7.3: Unsaturated, Saturated and Super Saturated Solutions
  1. Types of Solutions on the Basis of Concentration
7.4: Crystallization  
  1. Crystallization
  2. Preparation of Crystals of Copper Sulphate
  3. Preparation of Crystals of Potassium Nitrate
  4. Purification of Solids by Crystallization
7.5: Strengths of a Solution
  1. Concentration Units
  2. Molarity and Preparation of Molar Solution
  3. Molality
  4. Mole Fraction
  5. Percentage Mass/Mass
  6. Percentage Mass/Volume
  7. Percentage Volume/Mass
  8. Percentage Volume/Volume
  9. Determining Molarity from Percentage by Mass of Solution
  10. Calculating Molarity of a Solution
  11. Calculating Molality of a Solution
  12. Calculations of Dilution of Solution
  13. Calculation of Volume from Neutralisation Reactions
7.6: Suspension
  1. Suspensions
  2. Difference Between Solutions and Suspensions
  3. Uses of Suspensions

      CH#8   Electro Chemistry

8.1: Electrolytes and Non-Electrolytes
  1. Introduction to Electrochemistry
  2. Concepts of Electrolytes
8.2: Electrolysis or Electrolytic Conduction
  1. Introduction to Electrolysis
  2. Electrolysis of Sodium Chloride
  3. Electrolysis of Water
8.3: Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis
  1. Faraday’s First Law of Electrolysis
  2. Faraday’s Second Law of Electrolysis
  3. Calculating Amount of Silver Deposited
  4. Calculations of Electrolysis of Molten NaCl
8.4: Uses of Electrolysis  
  1. Uses of Electrolysis
  2. Electroplating
  3. Nickel Plating
  4. Chrome Plating
8.5: Electrochemical Cells  
  1. Galvanic Cell and its construction
  2. Working of the Cell
8.6: Batteries  
  1. Dry Cell
  2. Lead-Storage Battery

      CH#9   Acids, Bases and Salt

9.1: Acids and Bases
  1. Introduction to Acids and Bases

      CH#10   Chemical Energetics

10.1: Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions  
  1. Exothermic Reactions
  2. Using Exothermic Reactions to Warm Food
  3. Endothermic Reactions
  4. Examples of Endothermic Reactions
10.2: Heat Contents of Reaction
  1. Heat Contents of Reaction
  2. Enthalpy Change of Different Reactions
10.3: Measurement of Heat of Reaction
  1. Heat of Neutralisation
  2. More on Heat of Neutralisation


Chapter 11: Hydrogen and Water
11.1: Hydrogen  
  1. Occurrence of Hydrogen
  2. Preparation of Hydrogen by Steam-Coke Process
  3. Preparation of Hydrogen From Natural Gas
  4. Preparation of Hydrogen by Thermal Decomposition
  5. Preparation of Hydrogen by Electrolysis
  6. Physical Properties of Hydrogen
  7. Decomposition of Molecular Hydrogen
  8. Hydrogen as a Reducing Agent
  9. Hydrogenation Reactions
  10. Reaction of Hydrogen with Metals
  11. Reaction of Hydrogen with Non-Metals
  12. Uses of Hydrogen
  13. Nascent Hydrogen
  14. Isotopes of Hydrogen
11.2: Water  
  1. Introduction to Water
  2. Anamolous Behaviour of Water
  3. More on Anamolous Behaviour of Water
  4. Chemical Reaction of Water with Metals
  5. Chemical Reaction of Water with Less Electropositive Metals
  6. Chemical Reaction of Water with Non Metals
  7. Chemical Reaction of Water with Calcium Oxide
  8. Chemical Reaction of Water with Nitrous Oxide
11.3: Water as a Universal Solvent  (Practice Test)
  1. Water as Universal Solvent
  2. Water of Crystallization
11.4: Soft, Hard Water and Heavy Water  
  1. Soft, Hard and Heavy Water
  2. Causes of Hardness
  3. Temporary Hardness
  4. Permanent Hardness
  5. Removal of Temporary Hardness By Heating
  6. Removal of Temporary Hardness By Clarks Method
  7. Removal of Permanent Hardness by Washing Soda
  8. Removal of Permanent Hardness By Caustic Soda
  9. Removal of Permanent Hardness by Using Zeolite
  10. Heavy Water and its Uses
11.5: Hygroscopic Substances
  1. Hygroscopic Substances
11.6: Drinking Water  
  1. Water pollutents,Oxygen-Demanding Or Industrial Effluents
  2. Water Pollutants – Synthetic Organic Compounds
  3. Disease-Causing Wastes(Domestic Effluents)
  4. Agricultural Water Pollutants
  5. Qualities of Drinking Water

CH#12 Carbon, Silicon and their Compounds

12.1: Introduction  
  1. Occurrence of Carbon
  2. More on Occurrence of Carbon
12.2: Allotropy and Allotropic Forms of Carbon  
  1. Allotropy and Allotropic Forms of Carbon
  2. Diamond
  3. Graphite
  4. Bucky Balls
  5. Structure of Diamond
  6. Structure of Graphite
  7. Amorphous Forms of Carbon, Coal
  8. Coke
  9. Charcoal
12.3: Properties of Carbon  
  1. Physical Properties of Carbon
  2. Combustion Reaction of Carbon
  3. Combination Reaction of Carbon
  4. Carbon as Reducing Agent
  5. Reaction of Carbon with Strong Oxidizing Agents
  6. Catenation
  7. Uses of Carbon
12.4: Silicon  
  1. Introduction to Silicon
  2. Occurrence of Silicon
  3. More on Occurrence of Silicon
  4. By Heating Mixture of Pure Dry Sand
  5. By the Vapours of Silicon Tetrachloride
  6. By Heating Silica
  7. Properties of Silicon
  8. Uses of Silicon
12.5: Silica  
  1. Preparation of Silica
  2. Properties of Silica
  3. Uses of Silica
  4. Water Glass Preparation
  5. Uses of Water Glass
  6. Chemical Garden
  7. Silica Jel

CH#13  Nitrogen and Oxygen

13.1: Preparation of Nitrogen and Oxygen  
  1. Occurrence of Nitrogen
  2. Occurrence of Oxygen
  3. Preparation of Nitrogen from Air
  4. Fractional Distillation of Liquid Air
  5. Preparation of Nitrogen in Laboratory
  6. Physical Properties of Nitrogen
  7. Chemical Reaction of Nitrogen with Hydrogen
  8. Chemical Reaction of Nitrogen with Oxygen
  9. Chemical Reaction of Nitrogen With Magnesium
  10. Isolation of Oxygen From Air
  11. Preparation of Oxygen in Laboratoray
  12. Physical Properties of Oxygen
13.2: Oxides  
  1. Normal Oxides
  2. Basic Oxides
  3. Acidic Oxides
  4. Amphoteric Oxides
  5. Neutral Oxides
  6. Identifying Oxides as Acidic, Basic, Amphoteric or Neutral
  7. Peroxides
  8. Superoxides
  9. Suboxides
  10. Preparation of Hydrogen Peroxide in Laboratory
  11. Preparation of Hydrogen Peroxide in Industry
  12. Physical Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide
  13. Chemical Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide
  14. Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidizing Agent
  15. Hydrogen Peroxide as Reducing Agent
  16. Uses of Hydrogen Peroxide
13.3: Oxidation and Reduction  
  1. Oxidation and Reduction in Terms of Loss and Gain of Oxygen
  2. Oxidation and Reduction in Terms of Loss and Gain of Hydrogen
  3. Oxidation and Reduction in Terms of Loss and Gain of Electron
  4. Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
13.4: Ozone  
  1. Occurrence of Ozone
  2. Preparation of Ozone
  3. Physical Properties of Ozone
  4. Chemical Properties of Ozone
  5. Uses of Ozone
13.5: Compounds of Nitrogen (Ammonia and Nitric Acid)  
  1. Preparation of Ammonia in Laboratory
  2. The Haber’s Process
  3. Physical Properties of Ammonia
  4. Reaction of Ammonia with Water
  5. Reaction of Ammonia with Oxygen
  6. Reaction of Ammonia with Acids
  7. Reaction of Ammonia with Chlorine
  8. Ammonia as Reducing Agent
  9. Reaction of Ammonia with Carbon Dioxide
  10. Uses of Ammonia
  11. Introduction to Nitric Acid
  12. Preparation of Nitric Acid in Laboratory
  13. Preparation of Nitric Acid in Industry
  14. Physical Properties of Nitric Acid
  15. Nitric Acid as an Acid
  16. Nitric Acid as Oxidizing Agent
  17. Reaction of Nitric Acid with Non-Metals
  18. Reaction of Nitric Acid with Metals
  19. Reaction of Nitric Acid With Some Reducing Agents
  20. Nitration Reaction
  21. Formation of Aqua Regia
  22. Uses of Nitric Acids

CH#14 Sulphur and its Compounds

14.1: Sulphur and its Allotropic Forms  
  1. Introduction to Sulphur
  2. Rhombic Sulphur
  3. Preparation of Monoclinic Sulphur
  4. Monoclinic Sulphur
  5. Preparation of Rhombic Sulphur
  6. Plastic Sulphur
14.2: Occurrence and Extraction of Sulphur  
  1. Occurrence of Sulphur
  2. Extraction of Sulphur
14.3: Properties of Sulphur  
  1. Physical Properties of Sulphur
  2. Reaction of Sulphur with Metals
  3. Reaction of Sulphur with Non-Metals
  4. More on Reaction of Sulphur with Non-Metals
  5. Reaction of Sulphur with Acids
  6. Uses of Sulphur
14.4: Sulphuric Acid  
  1. Preparation of Sulphuric Acid through Contact Process
  2. Physical Properties of Sulphuric Acid
  3. Sulphuric Acid as an Acid
  4. Oxidation of Metals with Sulphuric Acid
  5. Oxidation of Non-Metals with Sulphuric Acid
  6. Oxidation of Other Compounds
  7. Sulphuric Acid as Drying Agent
  8. Uses of Sulphuric Acid

CH#15  Halogens

15.1: Introduction  
  1. Introduction to the Halogens
  2. Occurrence of Halogens
  3. Importance of Halogens in Daily Life
15.2: Chlorine  
  1. Preparation of Chlorine in Laboratory
  2. Preparation of Chlorine From Nelson’s Cell
  3. Preparation of Chlorine From Castner-Kellner’s Cell
  4. Physical Properties of Chlorine
  5. Reaction of Chlorine with Hydrogen
  6. Reaction of Chlorine with Metals
  7. Reaction of Chlorine with Non-Metals
  8. Addition Reactions of Chlorine
  9. Substitution Reactions of Chlorine
  10. Oxidation and Bleaching Action of Chlorine
  11. Reactions of Chlorine with Alkalies
  12. Reactions of Chlorine with Ammonia
  13. Reactions of Chlorine with Lime Water
  14. Uses of Chlorine
15.3: Compounds of Chlorine  
  1. Hydrochloric Acid
  2. Preparation of Hydrochloric Acid in Laboratory
  3. Preparation of Hydrochloric Acid in Industry
  4. Physical Properties of Hydrochloric Acid
  5. Reaction of Hydrochloric Acid with Water
  6. Reaction of Hydrochloric Acid with Alkalies
  7. Reaction of Hydrochloric Acid with Ammonia
  8. Reaction of Hydrochloric Acid with Less Electropositive Metals
  9. Reaction of Hydrochloric Acid with Metal Carbonates
  10. Reaction of Hydrochloric Acid with Metal Bicarbonates
  11. Reaction of Hydrochloric Acid with Nitrates
  12. Uses of Hydrochloric Acid
  13. Bleaching Powder
  14. Preparation of Bleaching Powder in Laboratory
  15. Preparation of Bleaching Powder in Industry
  16. Physical Properties of Bleaching Powder
  17. Reaction of Bleaching Powder with Water
  18. Reaction of Bleaching Powder with Strong Acids
  19. Reaction of Bleaching Powder with Carbon Dioxide
  20. Reaction of Bleaching Powder with Ammonia
  21. Uses of Bleaching Powder
15.4: Tests for Halide Ions (Silver Nitrate Test)
  1. Test for Halide Ions

CH#16  Metals and Their Extraction

16.1: Metals and Non-Metals  
  1. Physical differences between Metals and Non-Metals
  2. Chemical differences between Metals and Non-Metals
  3. Reaction of Metals with Acids
  4. Metals as Reducing Agents
  5. Nature of Metallic Chlorides
  6. Nature of Metallic Hydrides
16.2: Minerals and Ores  
  1. Minning of Minerals
  2. Occurrence of Iron
  3. Occurrence of Copper
  4. Occurrence of Aluminium
  5. Occurrence of Chromium
16.3: Metallurgy  
  1. Concentration of Ore
  2. Roasting
  3. Smelting
  4. Bassemerization Or Reduction
  5. Refining
16.4: Metullurgy of Iron  
  1. Metallurgy of Iron
  2. More on Metallurgy of Iron
  3. Pig Iron
  4. Cast Iron
  5. Wrought Iron
  6. Steel Iron
  7. Difference Between Iron and Steel
16.5: Copper  
  1. Metallurgy of Copper
  2. Roasting
  3. Smelting
  4. Bassemerization Or Reduction
  5. Refining
16.6: Aluminium  
  1. Metallurgy of Aluminium
  2. Purification of Bauxite
  3. Electrolysis of Pure Alumina
16.7: Alloys  
  1. Intoduction to Alloys
  2. Bronze
  3. Brass
  4. Nichrome

CH#17  Organic Chemistry

17.1: Introduction  
  1. Vital Force Theory
  2. Concept of Organic Chemistry
17.2: Natural Sources of Organic Compounds  
  1. Sources of Organic Compounds
  2. Coal and Its Types
  3. Natural Gas
  4. Petroleum
  5. Fractional Distillation of petroleum and its Importance
  6. Reforming of Petroleum
  7. Cracking of Petroleum
17.3: Homologous Series
  1. Homologus Series
  2. Isomerism
  3. Functional Groups,Alcohlic Group
  4. Carboxylic Group
  5. Halo Group
17.4: Hydrocarbons
  1. Saturated Hydrocarbons
  2. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
  3. Classification of Organic Compound
  4. Types of Acylic Compounds
  5. Types of Cylic Compounds
  6. Alkanes
  7. Alkenes
  8. Alkynes
  9. Naming of Alkane
17.5: Preparation and Properties of Methane  
  1. Preparation of Methane
  2. Physical properties of Alkanes
  3. Halogenations of Alkanes
  4. Combustion of Alkanes
  5. Uses of Methane and Ethane
17.6: Preparation and Properties of Ethene (Ethylene)  
  1. Preparation of Alkene
  2. Physical properties of Alkenes
  3. Hydrogenation of Alkenes
  4. Halogenations of Alkenes
  5. Hydrohalogenation of Alkenes
  6. Combustion and Polymerisation of Ethene
  7. Uses of Alkene
17.7: Preparation and Properties of Ethyne (Acetylene)  
  1. Preparation of Ethyne
  2. Physical properties of Alkynes
  3. Effect of Temperature on Vapour Pressure
  4. Addition Reaction of Halogens
  5. Hydrohalogenation of Ethyne
  6. Combustion of Ethyne
  7. Oxidation of Ethyne
  8. Uses of Acetylene
  9. Identifying Organic Compounds
  10. Convert Propyne to Propane
  11. Convert Ethanol to Ethyl Bromide
  12. Organic Reactions Completion

CH#18  Chemical Industries

18.1: Introduction  
  1. Introduction to Chemical Industries
  2. Industrial Preparation of Sodium Hydroxide
  3. Physical Properties of Sodium Hydroxide
  4. Reaction of Sodium Hydroxide with Acids
  5. Reaction of Sodium Hydroxide with Ammonium Chloride
  6. Reaction of Sodium Hydroxide with Carbon Dioxide
  7. Reactions of Chlorine with Alkalies
  8. Reaction of Sodium Hydroxide with Metals
  9. Uses of Sodium Hydroxide
18.2: Preparation of Carbonate and Bi-Carbonate of Sodium
  1. Solvay Process of sodium carbonate
  2. Physical Properties of Sodium Bicarbonates
  3. Action of heat on Sodium Bicarbonates
  4. Reaction of Sodium Bicarbonates with Acids
  5. Uses of Sodium Bicarbonates
  6. Physical Properties of Sodium Carbonates
  7. Reaction of Sodium Carbonate with Acids
  8. Reaction of Sodium Carbonate with Non-Alkali Metal Salts
  9. Reaction of Sodium Carbonate with Carbon Dioxide
  10. Reaction of Sodium Carbonate with Sand
  11. Uses of Sodium Carbonate
  12. Preparation of Hydrous Sodium Carbonate
18.3: Soaps
  1. Saponification
  2. Types of Soap
  3. Function of Soaps
  4. Composition of Detergents
  5. Function of Detergents
18.4: Plastics  
  1. Sources and Usage of Plastics
  2. Thermoplastics
  3. Thermosetting Plastics
  4. Structure of some Plastics
18.5: Paints
  1. Composition of Oil Paints
  2. Composition of Water Paints
18.6: Varnishes
  1. Composition of Varnishes
  2. Application of Varnishes
18.7: Polishes
  1. Contituents of Various Polishes
  2. Preparation of Shoe Polish
18.8: Inks  
  1. Introduction to Ink
  2. Types of Ink
  3. More on Types of Ink
  4. Preparation of Blue Black Ink
  5. Preparation of Royal Blue Ink
18.9: Food Preservation
  1. Introduction to Food Preservation
  2. Causes of Food Spoilage
18.10: Food Preservation Methods
  1. Methods of Food Preservation
  2. More on Methods of Food Preservation